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GULSHAN   I   EAZ: 


THE  MYSTIC  ROSE  GARDEN 


SA'D  UD  DIN  MAHMUD  SHABISTAEI. 


a.     e 


THE  PERSIAN    TEXT,  WITH  AN   ENGLISH  TRANSLATION   ANT) 

NOTES,   CHIEFLY  FROM  THE  COMMENTARY  OF 

MUHAMMAD  BIN  YAHYA  LAHIJI. 


BY     E      H.     WHINFIELD,     M.A., 

BAERISTEE-AT-LAW, 

LATE  OP  H.  M.  BENGAL  CIVIL  SERVICE. 


Honton : 
TRtJBNER   &    CO.,    LUDGATB   HILL. 

1880. 

[All  rights  reserved.} 


LONDON : 

GILBERT   AND   lilVINGTON,    PRINTERS, 
ST.   JOHN'S   SQUARE. 


PK. 

(c.i'43 


711784 


INTRODUCTION. 


THE  Gulshan  i  Raz  was  composed  in  A.H.  717  (A.D.  1317),  in 
answer  to  fifteen  questions  on  the  doctrines  of  the  Sufis,  or 
Muhamrnadan  Mystics,  propounded  by  Amir  Syad  Hosaini,1  a 
celebrated  Sufi  doctor  of  Herat.  The  author's  name  was  Sa'd 
ud  din  Mahinud  Shabistari,  so  called  from  his  birth-place, 
Shabistar,2  a  village  near  Tabriz,  in  the  province  of  Azarbaijan. 
From  a  brief  notice  of  his  life  in  the  Mujalis  ul  'Ushshak, 
repeated  in  substance  in  the  Haft  Iklim,  the  Sajina  i  Khushgu, 
and  the  Riaz  ush  Slniara,  it  would  appear  that  he  was  bom 
about  the  middle  of  the  seventh  century  of  the  Hejira  (A.D.  1250), 
and  that  he  died  at  Tabriz,  where  he  had  passed  the  greater 
part  of  his  life,  in  A.H.  720.  The  only  particulars  of  his  life 
recorded  in  these  Tazkiras  are,  that  he  was  devotedly  attached  to 
one  of  his  disciples  named  Shaikh  Ibrahim,  and  that  in  addition 
to  the  Gulshan  i  Raz  he  wrote  treatises  entitled  Hakk  ul  Yakin 
and  Risala  i  Shahid.  No  further  information  as  to  the  circum- 
stances of  his  life  and  times  is  to  be  found  in  the  poem  itself 
or  in  the  commentary,  but  we  know  from  the  Habib  us  Siyar 
and  other  chronicles3  that  his  birth  was  about  contemporaneous 
with  the  incursion  of  the  heathen  Moghuls  under  Hulaku  Khan, 
the  conquest  of  Persia,  Syria  and  Mesopotamia,  and  the  downfall 
cf  the  Abbaside  Khalifs,  or  "  Vicars  of  God."  And  living  as  he  did 

1  His  life  is  given  in  the  Nafliat  ul  Uns  of  Jami. 

*  This  name  is  sometimes   written   Jabistar  or  Chabistar.     The  Persian  cliim  is 
usually  expressed  by  the  Arabic  shin. — Ouseley,  Ibn  Haukal,  156. 

*  See  Malcolm,  History  of  Persia,  ii.  252. 


IV  INTRODUCTION. 

at  Tabriz,  the  capital  of  the  newly  established  Moghul  Empire, 
he  must  have  witnessed  the  long  struggle  which  ensued  between 
the  Christian  Missionaries  and  the  Muhammadan  Mullas  to  gain 
the  Moghul  Sultans  over  to  their  respective  religions, — a  struggle 
the  result  of  which  was  for  a  long  time  doubtful,1  and  which  was 
not  finally  decided  till  A.H.  G96,  when  the  Emperor  Ghazan  Khan, 
with  nearly  one  hundred  thousand  of  his  followers,  adopted  the 
Muhammadan  faith.  During  the  pendency  of  this  struggle  Tabriz 
was  visited  by  missions  from  Pope  Nicolas  IV.  and  Pope  Boniface 
VIII.,  and  also  by  the  celebrated  Marco  Polo  ;  and  possibly  Mahmud's 
acquaintance  .with  Christian  doctrines  may  have  been  derived  or 
improved  from  intercourse  with  Halton  or  some  of  the  other  monks 
attached  to  these  missions. 

The  first  European  authors  to  notice  the  Gulshan  i  Eaz  were 
the  travellers  Chardin  and  Bemier,  circ.  1700,  both  of  whom 
describe  it  as  the  "  Sumrna  theologica  "  of  the  Sufis.  In  the  course 
of  the  eighteenth  century  several  copies  of  the  poem  found  their 
way  to  the  great  European  libraries.  In  1821  Dr.  Tholuck,  of 
Berlin,  published  a  few  extracts  from  it,  with  Latin  translations,  in  his 
"  Ssufismus,"  and  in  1825  a  German  translation  of  about  one-third 
of  the  entire  poem  in  his  "  Bliithensammlung  aus  der  Morgenlan- 
dischen  Mystik."  In  1838  Von  Hammer-Purgstall  published  the 
Persian  text,  based  on  the  Berlin  and  the  Vienna  MSS.,  along 
with  a  German  verse  translation  and  a  few  notes  from  Lahiji's  com- 
mentary.2 The  text  now  published  is  based  on  that  of  Hammer, 
collated  with  two  Indian  MSS.  of  the  poem  and  commentary, — one 
the  poor  copy  in  the  library  of  the  Asiatic  Society  at  Calcutta,  the 
other  a  very  correct  copy  hi  the  possession  of  a  Zemindar  in  Midna- 
pore.  On  the  authority  of  this  MS.  several  couplets  omitted  by 
Hammer  have  been  restored,  several  repetitions  retrenched,  and 

1  One  of  the  Moghul  Emperors  was  actually  baptised,  and,  according  to  the 
chronicler,  "  true  believers  trembled  lest  the  sacred  temple  at  Mecca  might  be  con- 
verted into  a  Christian  cathedral." — Malcolm,  ii.  268. 

*  The  full  title  of  this  commentary  is,  "  Jifufatih  ul  a'jazji  sJiarh  i  GulsJian  i  Raz." 
It  was  composed  in  A.H.  879. 


INTRODUCTION.  V 

various  erroneous  readings  corrected.1  All  the  alterations  made  have 
been  indicated  in  the  margin,  and  none  have  been  made  without  MS. 
authority.  Hammer's  readings  are  marked  H ;  those  of  the  Midna- 
pore  MS.,  L. ;  and  others,  given  in  the  commentary  or  in  the  Calcutta 
copy,  MSS.  The  translation  has  been  made  as  close  to  the  original  as 
possible,  Lahiji's  renderings,  as  given  in  his  paraphrase,  being  strictly 
followed  throughout.  The  translations  of  the  Arabic  quotations 
in  the  text  are  printed  in  italics.  The  notes  contain  a  brief  abstract 
of  Lahiji's  voluminous  commentary,  which  is  itself  a  great  authority 
on  Sufiism,  and  also  a  few  of  the  more  striking  parallelisms  to  Sufi 
ideas  to  be  found  in  the  Neoplatonists,  and  in  the  mystical  theolo- 
gians of  Europe. 

It  is  this  correspondence  with  European  Mysticism  which  gives 
Sufiism  its  chief  interest  for  European  students.  Many  of  the 
Catholic  definitions  of  '  mystical  theology '  would  do  for  descriptions 
of  Sufiism.2  The  ruling  ideas  in  both  systems  are  very  similar,  if  not 
absolutely  identical.  Thus,  for  instance,  we  find  the  Sufis  talking  of 
'  love  to  God,'  of  '  union  with  God,'  of  '  death  to  self,  and  life  eternal 
in  God,'  of  'the  indwelling  in  man  of  the  Spirit,'  of  'the  nullity  of  works 
and  ceremonies,'  of  '  grace  and  spiritual  illumination,'  and  of  the 
'  Logos.'  Both  systems  may  be  characterised  as  religions  of  the 
heart,  as  opposed  to  formalism  and  ritualism.  Both  exalt  the  '  inner 
light'3  at  the  expense  of  the  outward  ordinance  and  voice  of  the 
Church.  Both  exhibit  the  same  craving  for  visionary  raptures  and 
supernatural  exaltations,  and  have  been  productive  of  similar  excesses 
and  extravagancies.  If  Sufiism  has  its  Mevlavis  and  Eafa'is  and  Be- 
shara'  fakirs,  its  dancing  and  howling,  and  Antinomian  durveshes,  so 

1  The  poem  is  written  in  the  metre  called  Hazaj  i  musaddas  i  maksur,  viz.  ma- 
fd'ilun  mafd'ilun  mqfd'il  (twice). 

1  E.g.  That  of  Corderius, "  Sapientiaexperimentalis,  divinitus  infusa,  quse  mentem  ab 
omni  inordinatione  puram  cum  Deo  intime  conjungit."  That  of  John  a  Jesu  Maria, 
"  Calestis  qusedam  Dei  notitia,  per  unionem  voluntatis  Deo  adhserentifi,  elicita,  vel 
lumine  cselitus  immisso  producta."  That  of  Gerson,  "  Est  motio  anagogica  in  Deum 
— secretissima  mentis  cum  Deo  locutio." — Vaughan,  i.  288. 

1  The  Quaker  Barclay,  in  his  "  Apology,"  supports  his  doctrine  of  "  illumination  " 
by  reference  to  a  Sufi  book  (the  history  of  Hai  Ibu  Yokhdau)  translated  by  Ockley. 


VI  INTRODUCTION. 

European  Mysticism  has  produced  the  Omphalopsychi  or  navelgazing 
monks  of  Mount  Athos,  the  Jansenist  "Convulsionaries,"  the  Anabap- 
tists of  Munster,  and  the  Shakers.1     Finally,  to  complete  the  parallel, 
both  systems  have  a  tendency  to  Pantheism,  and  both  use  similar 
sensuous  figures  to  express  their  visions  and  raptures.    The  Pantheism 
of  the  Gulshan  i  Eaz  has  its  counterpart  in  that  of  Eckart,  the  "Doctor 
Ecstaticus,"  and  much  of  its  sensuous  imagery  might  be  matched  by 
the  erotic  language  of  St.  Bernard's  sermons  on  the  Canticles,  the 
wonderful  effusions  of  St.  Theresa,  and  the  mystical  hymns  of  St. 
Alphonso  Liguori  and  others.3 

At  first  sight  it  is  difficult  to  see  how  a  subjective  emotional 
religious  system  like  Sufiism  could  have  originated  from  the  rigid 
formalism  of  the  Koran,3  and  still  more  how  orthodox  Mussulmans 
can  possibly  reconcile  its  Pantheism,  as  many  of  them  do,4  with  the 
uncompromising  Monotheism  taught  by  Muhammad.  The  answer 
would  seem  to  be  that  the  Koran,  and  still  more  the  Hadis,  in  one 
department  of  their  language,  contain  the  germs  of  this  line  of 
religious  thought.  They  in  fact  use  a  double  language.  At  one  time 
they  represent  Allah  as  having  created  the  world  once  for  all,  and  as 
now  removed  to  His  seat  in  the  'arsh  or  highest  heaven,  having  left 
His  creatures  to  work  out  their  own  salvation  or  condemnation  by 

1  See  an  account  of  the  curious  phenomena  which  sometimes  followed  the  preach- 
ing of  Wesley,  Whitfield,  and  Newton.     Leslie  Stephen's  English  Thought,  ii.  417. 
And  a  missionary  account  of  the  "  gracious  visitations  of  the  Holy  Spirit  at  Vewa," 
one  of  the  Fiji  Islands.     H.  Spencer,  Essays,  i.  444. 

2  See  Vaughan,  "  Hours  with  the   Mystics,"  i.  119,  ii.  125 ;  and  "Hymns  and 
Verses  of  St.  Alphonso,"  translated  by  Coffin,  pp.  80  to  11G. 

* "  Earn  enim  doctrinam  ex  arido  atque  exili  Muhammadanismi  solo  tarn  cito  esse 
enatam,  res  est  per  se  admiratione  digua,  qua3que  desiderium  illud  menti  humane 
ingenitum  diserte  attestatur,  quo  extra  se  proripitur  et  cum  Deo  rursus  conjungi 
necessitate  quadam  naturse  vehementer  eupit." — Dr.  Pusey,  in  Nicoll's  Catalogue  of 
Bodleian  MSS. 

4  The  Musnavi  is  commonly  said  to  be  the  Koran  of  Persia  (Hughes,  "Notes  on  Mu- 
hammadanism,"  p.  231) ;  Khaja  'Ayni,  an  orthodox  Sunni  doctor,  in  a  work  published 
at  Constantinople  in  1834,  warmly  commends  both  the  Musnaoi  and  the  Gulshan  i 
Rax. — Hammer.  Imam  Shafei  and  Hanbal,  two  of  the  great  jurisconsults,  speak  in 
the  highest  terms  of  the  Sufis'  "  knowledge  of  God." — Tholuck,  Ssufismus,  58. 


INTRODUCTION.  Vll 

their  own  free  will,  according  to  the  lights  given  them  by  His  prophets ; 
at  another  time  they  represent  Him  as  the  '  Subtile  '  Being,  immanent 
and  ever  working  in  His  creatures,  the  sum  of  all  existence,  the 
'  fulness  of  life,'  whereby  all  things  move,  act  and  exist,  omnipresent, 
not  only  predestinating  but  actually  originating  all  action,  dwelling  in 
and  directly  influencing  and  communing  with  each  individual  soul. 
The  Sufis,  being  men  of  an  emotional  mystical  temperament,  or,  as  they 
called  themselves,  'men  of  heart,'  'men  looking  behind  the  veil,' 
'  interior  men,'1  naturally  caught  at  all  expressions  of  this  kind  which 
seemed  to  bring  the  divine  mysterious  object  of  their  religious  emotion 
nearer  to  them,  and,  as  theologians  are  prone  to  do,  dwelt  on  the 
texts  that  fell  in  with  their  own  view,  to  the  exclusion  of  passages  of 
the  opposite  tendency.  This  view  they  developed  with  the  aid  of  the 
Greek  and  especially  the  Neoplatonic  metaphysics,  which  had  been 
popularised  by  the  Arabian  philosophers  Farabi,  Ghazzali,  Ibn  Eoshd 
and  Ibn  Sina.  Under  these  influences  they  identified  the  Allah  of  the 
Koran  with  the  Neoplatonic  Being,  the  One,  the  Necessary  Being,  the 
only  Reality,  "The  Truth,"2  the  Infinite,  which  includes  all  actual 
being,  good  and  evil,  the  First  Cause,  source  of  all  action,  good  and 
evil  alike.  The  world  of  phenomena  and  man — every  thing  else  in 
fact  but  Allah — they  identified  with  Not  being, — absolute  nonentity, 
which  like  a  mirror  reflects  Being,  and  by  thus  borrowing  particles  of 
Being  rises  to  the  rank  of  Contingent  being,  a  kind  of  being  which, 
as  Plato  says,  is  and  is  not,  and  partakes  both  of  existence  and  non- 
existence.  This  Not  being  is  a  sort  of  Manicha3an  Ahriman,  which 
solves  all  practical  difficulties  attaching  to  their  speculative  system. 
According  to  their  theory  the  Infinite  includes  all  being,  evil  included  ; 
but  as  this  is  not  consistent  with  the  goodness  of  the  Allah  of  the 


"  While  some  (men  of  externals)  believe  that  there  is  nothing  iu  existence  hut 
what  is  visible  to  sight  and  reason,  others  (interior  men)  hold  that  much  is  veiled 
from  sight  which  can  only  be  seen  through  a  nearer  approach  to  the  Divine  Creator 
and  a  close  spiritual  communion  with  His  omnipresent  spirit."— Fasus  ul 
Hakim. 

2  Al  HaTclc,  das  Seiende,  the  Sat  of  the  Upanishads. — M.  Miiller,  Upanishads,  I., 
xxxii. 


VU'i  INTRODUCTION. 

Koran,  evil  is  said  to  proceed  from  Not  being.1  Again,  according  to 
their  theory  the  spark  of  real  being — divinse  particula  aurse — in  man 
is  identical  with  the  Infinite  Being,  and  hence  man  would  seem  to  be 
above  laws  and  creeds  ;  but  as  this  would  lead  to  Antinomianism,  it  is 
said  that,  while  man  remains  in  the  intermediate  state  of  Contingent 
being,  he  is  as  it  were  weighed  down  and  held  apart  from  Being  by 
the  element  of  Not  being,  and  that  in  this  probationary  state  laws 
and  creeds  are  needed  to  restrain  his  evil  tendencies.  Thus,  by  the 
aid  of  this  convenient  'Not  being,'  which  is  something  while  it  is 
wanted,  and  relapses  into  nothing  directly  it  is  no  longer  needed,  the 
Sufis  avoid  all  the  immoral  and  irreligious  consequences  of  their  theory. 
Hence  it  is  clear  that  the  Pantheism  of  the  Sufis,  at  any  rate  as 
expounded  in  the  Gulshan  i  Raz,  must  not  be  confounded  with  the 
European  Pantheism  of  the  present  day — that  Pantheism  which  in 
the  words  of  Bossuet,  "makes  every  thing  God  except  God  him- 
self." In  the  Guhhan  i  Raz  we  find  a  different  species  of  Pantheism — 
one  held  conjointly  with  a  theory  of  divine  personality,  and  the 
obligations  of  morality.  Mahmud's  Pantheism  is  an  amplification 
rather  than  a  miniinification  of  the  idea  of  the  Divinity,  infinite, 
omnipresent  and  omnipotent.2  He  felt  the  sense  of  his  own  exist- 
ence and  his  own  freedom  passing  away  and  becoming  absorbed  in 
the  sense  of  absolute  dependence  on  this  Infinite  Being.  Compared 
with  this  omnipresent,  infinite,  unseen  Power  underlying  all  the 
phenomena  of  the  universe,3  dominating  man's  will,  striving  in 
man's  heart,— 

Warming  in  the  sun,  refroshing  in  the  breeze, 
Glowing  in  the  stars,  and  blossoming  in  the  trees, — 

all  outward  existences  and  agencies,  whether  in  man  or  in  the  world, 

1  Similarly  St.  Augustine  said  evil  was  a  negation.  The  fact  that  he  could  find  no 
better  way  of  reconciling  these  "  antinomies  of  religious  thought,"  ought  to  make 
us  lenient  critics  of  the  Sufis. 

f     a  The  same   feeling    is  expressed  by  many  Christian  poets,  e.g.  Dante,  Paradise, 
iii.  86 : 

"  In  la  Sua  volonta  e  nostra  pace : 
Ella  e  quel  mare,  al  qual  tutto  si  muove, 
Cio,  ch'  Ella  cria,  o  che  natura  face." 
3  Mr.  Herbert  Spencer,  "  First  Principles,"  p.  99,  says :  "  We  are  obliged  to  regar 


INTRODUCTION.  IX 

seemed  to  sink  into  utter  nothingness.  In  point  of  fact  Mahmud's 
Pantheism  is  only  the  corollary  of  the  Muhammadan  doctrine  of  Jain; 
usually  translated  predestination,  but,  more  exactly,  the  compulsion  to 
carry  out  the  Divine  will,  the  universal  action  of  Allah.  The  same 
sense  and  conviction  of  this  irresistible  divine  impulse  and  compulsion 
which,  according  to  their  temperaments,  drives  some  men  into  furious 
and  fanatical  action,1  and  makes  others  sit  clown  and  cry  '  Kismat,' 
impels  men  of  a  logical  turn  of  mind  to  regard  not  only  all  the 
action  but  also  all  the  existence  in  the  universe  as  the  direct  outcome 
or  manifestation  of  the  Divine  energy. 

The  whole  Sufi  system  follows  as  a  logical  consequence  from  this 
fundamental  assumption.  Sense  and  reason  cannot  transcend 
phenomena,  or  see  the  real  Being  which  underlies  them  all ;  so  sense 
and  reason  must  be  ignored  and  superseded  in  favour  of  the  '  inner 
light,'  the  inspiration  or  divine  illumination  in  the  heart,  which  is  the 
only  faculty  whereby  men  perceive  the  Infinite.  Thus  enlightened, 
men  see  that  the  whole  external  phenomenal  world,  including  man's 
'  self,'  is  an  illusion,  non-existent  in  itself,  and,  in  so  far  as  it  is 
non-existent,  evil,  because  a  departure  from  the  one  real  Being. 
Man's  only  duty  is  to  shake  off  this  illusion,  this  clog  of  Not  being, 
to  efface  and  die  to  self,  and  to  be  united'  with  and  live  eternally  in 
the  one  real  Being — "  The  Truth."  In  this  progress  to  union  external 
observances  and  outward  forms  profit  little,  because  they  keep  alive 
the  illusion  of  duality,  of  man's  self-righteousness,  of  his  personal 
agency  and  personal  merit,  whereas  the  true  course  is  to  ignore  all 
reference  to  self — to  be  passive,  that  God  may  work — and  then  the 
Divine  light  and  grace  will  enter  the  chamber  of  man's  heart  and 

every  phenomenon  as  a  manifestation  of  some  power  by  which  we  are  acted  on,  and 
though  omnipresence  is  unthinkable,  yet,  as  experience  discloses  no  bounds  to  the 
diffusion  of  phenomena,  we  are  unable  to  think  of  any  limits  to  the  diffusion  of  this 
power,  while  the  criticisms  of  science  teach  us  that  this  power  is  incomprehensible." 
Mahmud  would  agree  that  it  is  incomprehensible  by  reason,  but  would  add  that  it  is 
cognisable  by  spiritual  illumination— the  clairvoyance  of  the  heart. 

1  Thus  with  us,  the  same  theory  of  divine  action  upon  the  world  which  led  the  Puritans 
to  action,  led  the  Quakers  to  resignation,  and  'quietism.'  In  popular  parlance,  "Quaker" 
signifies  just  the  same  sort  of  mild  non- resisting  character  that  "Sirft  Sahib"  does  in  India. 


X  INTRODUCTION. 

operate  in  him  without  impediment,  and  draw  him  to  "  The  Truth," 
and  unite  him  with  "  The  One." 

The  manner  in  which  these  ruling  ideas  are  worked  out  and  con- 
nected, by  means  of  allegorical  interpretation,  with  the  teaching  of  the 
Koran  and  the  Hadis  will  be  best  explained  by  an  outline  of  the  poem. 

After  an  exordium  laying  down  the  fundamental  principle  of  the 
sole  existence  of  the  one  real  Being,  and  of  the  illusive  non-real 
nature  of  all  phenomenal  being,  and  a  short  account  of  the  composition 
of  the  poem,  Mahmud  proceeds  to  inquire  how  men  are  to  gain  this 
essential  knowledge  of  God.  The  answer  commonly  given  is,  by 
thought.  But  thought  is  of  two  kinds,  one  logical  reasoning,  the 
other  spiritual  illumination.  The  first  method  is  inapplicable,  because 
sense  and  reason  cannot  transcend  phenomena,  and  work  up  to  the 
invisible  and  incomprehensible  Being  underlying  them.1  They  are 
powerless  to  shake  off  the  illusion  of  the  apparent  reality  of  the 
sensible  world.  From  this  original  defect  of  mental  eyesight,  whatever 
philosophers  and  theologians  say  of  God  only  proves  their  own 
incapacity  to  apprehend  Him.2 

II.  Reason,  looking  at  the  Light  of  lights,  is  blinded  by  excess  of 
light,  like  a  bat  by  the  sun.  This  annihilation  of  the  mental  vision 
caused  by  its  proximity  to  the  Light  of  lights — this  consciousness  of 
its  own  nothingness  caused  by  its  approach  to  Being — is  the  highest 
degree  of  perception  which  contingent  being  can  attain.3  When  the 
contingent  seer  attains  this  state  of  annihilation  of  his  phenomenal 
self,  the  true  light  is  revealed  to  him,  as  a  spiritual  illumination 
streaming  in  on  his  soul. 

The  phenomenal  world  is  in  itself  Not  being,  wherein  are  reflected, 
as  in  a  mirror,  the  various  attributes  of  Being.  By  a  species  of 
radiation  or  effluxion  of  waves  of  light  from  Being,  each  atom  of  Not 
being  becomes  a  reflection  of  some  one  divine  attribute.  These 

1  Here  is  the  germ  of  the  modern  doctrine  of  the  Relativity   of  knowledge,  and 
consequent  limits  of  thought. 

2  Cognoscitur  non  secundum  sui  vim  sed  secundum  coguoscentium  facultatem. — 
Boethius.     Hamilton,  Metaphysics,  i.  61. 

3  Compare  St.  Augustine :  "  Deum  potius  ignorantia  quam  scientia  attingi." 


INTRODUCTION.  XI 

effluent  atoms  of  Being  are  ever  striving  to  rejoin  their  source,  but  so 
long  as  their  phenomenal  extrusion  lasts  they  are  held  back  from 
reunion  with  their  divine  source. 

Passing  to  precept,  Mahmud  says,  "  Eest  not  in  the  illusions  of  sense 
and  reason,  but  abandon  your  '  natural  realism,'  as  Abraham  aban- 
doned the  worship  of  the  host  of  heaven.  Press  on  till,  like  Moses 
at  Mount  Sinai,  you  see  the  mount  of  your  illusive  phenomenal 
existence  annihilated  at  the  approach  of  Divine  glory.  Ascend  like 
Muhammad  to  heaven,  and  behold  the  mighty  signs  of  the  Lord." 

Thus  illumined  you  will  see  "  The  Truth"  to  be  the  source  of  all 
being,  diffused  and  poured  out  into  the  phenomenal  world  by  means  of 
the  various  emanations,  beginning  with  the  Logos  and  ending  with  man. 

"  The  Truth"  it  is  who  alone  is  acting  in  the  universe.  All  the 
revolutions  of  the  heavenly  spheres,  stars  and  planets,  proceed  not 
from  themselves,  as  the  undevout  astronomer  says,  but  from  "  The 
Truth."  He  is,  as  it  were,  the  Master  potter  who  turns  the  wheel. 
The  motions  of  the  heavens,  the  coalescence  of  discordant  elements 
into  bodies,  the  obedience  of  plants  and  animals  to  the  laws  of  their 
kinds,  are  all  His  never  ceasing  handiwork. 

With  regard  to  man,  he  is  the  soul  of  the  world — the  microcosm. 
While  other  creatures  reflect  only  single  divine  attributes,  man  reflects 
them  all.  He  is  an  epitome  of  the  universe,  and  so  by  introspec- 
tion he  may  see  in  himself  reflections  of  all  the  divine  attributes — 
of  the  "  fulness  of  the  Godhead."  But  on  the  other  side  he  is  black 
with  the  darkness  and  evil  of  Not  being.  His  object  therefore  should 
be  to  purge  away  this  non-existent  corrupt  side  of  himself,  which 
holds  him  back  from  union.  And,  union  once  attained,  thought  is 
no  longer  possible,  for  thought  implies  duality. 

III.  To  "travel  into  self"  means  "  introrsum  ascendere,"  -to 
journey  out  of  the  phenomenal  non-existent  self  into  the  real  self, 
which  is  one  with  "  The  Truth."  This  journey  has  two  stages,  dying 
to  self  and  abiding  in  "  The  Truth."  When  man's  phenomenal  self 
is  effaced,  and  the  real  Self  alone  remains,  law  has  no  longer  any 
dominion  over  him. 

b  2 


Xli  INTRODUCTION. 

IV.  These  journeys  are  called  the  "journey  up  to  God"  and  the 
"journey  down  from  God  in  God,"  and  are  a  sort  of  circuit,  and  he 
who  completes  the  circuit  is  the  "  perfect  man." 

When  man  is  born  into  the  world  evil  passions  spring  up  in  him, 
and  if  he  gives  way  to  them  he  is  lost.  But  if  he  attends  to  the 
promptings  of  Divine  grace  and  light  in  his  soul,  he  repents,  and  is 
converted,  and  journeys  up  to  God, — effacing  self-will,  self-knowledge, 
and  his  entire  phenomenal  corrupt  self-existence ;  and  purifying  his 
nobler  part  from  the  stain  of  externality,  he  ascends  in  spirit  to 
heaven,  and  is  united  in  spirit  with  "  The  Truth." 

This  stage  is  the  holy  state  known  as  saintship,  exemplified  in  saints 
and  prophets. 

But  the  "  perfect  man  "  must  not  pause  in  this  estatic  union,  which 
is  above  all  laws.  Notwithstanding  this  exaltation  he  must  journey 
down  again  to  the  phenomenal  world,  in  and  along  with  God,  and  in 
this  downward  journey  he  must  conform  to  outward  laws  and  creeds. 
His  sanctification  must  bring  forth  the  outward  fruit  of  good  works. 

The  law  is  as  a  husk,  and  the  holy  state  of  identity  with  "  The 
Truth  "  the  kernel;  and  when  the  kernel  is  ripe  it  bursts  the  husk. 
But  the  perfect  man  must  not  rest  or  abide  in  this  ecstatic  state  of  ! 
union  with  "The  Truth,"  but  so  long  as  he  is  in  this  life  must  "return 
to  sobriety;"  and  though  "The  Truth"  is  the  fixed  and  abiding 
home  of  his  soul,  he  must  wear  the  law  as  an  outward  garment,  and 
the  Sufi  '  path '  or  canon  as  his  inward  garment,  and  perform  all 
external  legal  observances.1 

The  perfection  of  this  saintly  state  will  be  seen  in  Muhammad 
Mehdi,  '  the  seal  of  the  saints,'  who  by  the  secret  of  unity  will  perfectly 
attain  to  "The  Truth." 

V.  The  man  who  knows  this  secret — that  all  things  are  One — dies 
to  self,  and  lives,  with  regenerate  heart,  in  God.    He  sweeps  away  all 
that  comes  between  God  and  the  soul,  and  "breaks  through  to  the 

1  Another  caution,  insisted  on  as  well  by  the  Sufis  as  by  European  mystics,  is  that 
the  vagaries  of  the  "  inner  light  "  must  be  checked  by  recourse  to  the  advice  of  the 
Pir,  or  "  Spiritual  Director." 


INTRODUCTION.  Xlll 

oneness,"1  as  Eckart  said.  Good  works,  it  is  true,  raise  men  to  a 
'laudable  station,'  but  so  long  as  division  and  duality  and  'self 
remain,  true  mystical  union  of  knower  and  known  is  not  attained. 

VI.  But  if  knower  and  Known  be  one,   how  comes  it  that  the 
knower  feels  within  him  emotions  of  love  and  aspiration  drawing  him 
towards  the   '  Known  ? '     In   man's  present  phenomenal  state,  the 
mixture  of  Not  being  in  him  divides  him  from  Being;   and  these 
aspirations  are  the  stirrings  of  the  true  Being  within  him,  recalling 
and  drawing  him  as  with  a  magnet  to  his  source.     If  he  be  not  of 
those  who  are  born  blind  to  this  spiritual  light  within,  these  sparks 
kindle  up  the  flame  of  love  to  God,  which  burns  up  his  phenomenal 
self,  and  shows  him  his  real  self  one  with  "  The  Truth." 

VII.  The  man  who,  like  Mansur  Hallaj,  the  wool-carder,  has  carded 
away  his  phenomenal  self,  can  say,  "  I  am  the  Truth  ; "  for  when  man 
takes  his  eternal  side,   'other,'  i.e.  Not  being,  is  annihilated,  and 
nothing  is  left  but  Being.     When  God  withdraws  what  belongs  to 
Him    all   things   fall   back   into   their    original    nothingness.       All 
phenomenal  existence  is  merely  an  illusion,  as  we  may  see  from  the 
case  of  echoes,  reflections,  past  and  future  time,  and  fleeting  accidents, 
wherein  all  the  externality  or  objectivity  of  substance  consists. 

VIII.  The  creature  state  being  thus  non-existent,  man  cannot  of 
himself  move,  draw  near  to,  or  unite  with  "  The  Truth."    Union  is  only 
a  phrase  for  annihilating  the  phenomenal  element  in  man — sweeping 
off  the  dust  of  contingent  being.    The  genesis  of  the  creature  world  is 
an  eternal  process.     It  is  as  a  drop  of  water,  raised  from  the  sea  of 
Being  in  mist,  poured  down  in  rain,  converted  into  plants,  animals, 
man,  and  finally  recalled  into  the  bosom  of  the  sea.     Phenomena  are 
constantly  annihilated  in  the  universal  Noumeuon,   and  this  anni- 
hilation is  union. 

1  Similarly  Tauler  preached  the  necessity  of  "  fathomless  annihilation  of  self,"  and 
a  "  transformed  condition  of  the  soul,"  and  "  rest  in  the  divine  centre  or  ground  of  the 
soul." — Vaughan,  i.  192. 


INTRODUCTION. 

IX.  The  illusion  of  free-will  is  Magianisin,  setting  up  an  evil  first 
cause,  Ahriman,  over  against  the  good,  Ormuzd.     This  illusion  must 
be  shaken  off  and  annihilated  in  the  conviction  that  the  only  free 
agent  is  "  The  Truth,"  and  man  a  passive  instrument  in  His  hands, 
and  absolutely  dependent   on  His  pleasure.      Man's   glory  lies  in 
abandoning  his  self-will,  and  finding  his  true  will  in  God's  will. 

X.  Going  back  to  the  relation  of  the  law  to  the  state  of  sanctifica- 
tion,  called  in  the  fourth  answer  "  The  Truth," '  and  here  called  "  the 
knowledge  of  faith,"  Mahmud  compares  the  former  to  the  shell,  and 
the  latter  to  the  pearl  within  it.     The  Sufi  must  extract  this  pearl ; 
but,  on  the  other  hand,  he  must  not  break  the  shell  till  the  pearl 
within  it  is  fully  formed.     The  law  is  a  schoolmaster  to  bring  him  to 
"  The  Truth."     Without  this  faith,  this  fixed  spiritual  habitude,  this 
settled  internal  character  or  '  state '  of  the  heart,  no  external  legal 
works  are  virtuous  in  the  highest  sense.     Legal  and  formal  works 
cannot  sanctify  man ; 2   it  is  the  saintly  disposition  which  sanctifies 
works.     From  this   disposition   all  the  virtues  flow  spontaneously. 
All  the  virtues  lie  in  the  mean,  in  equipoise  and  harmony,  and  this 
harmony  of  the  soul  calls  down  and  attracts  the  Spirit  from  above. 
This  heavenly  spirit  operates  in  man  like  the  sun's  beams  on  the 
earth.     As   it  were  enamoured   of  the  harmonious  soul,  the  Spirit 
enters  into  a  mystical  marriage  union  with  it,  the  issue  of  which  is 
gracefulness,  virtue  and  the  beauty  of  holiness.     But  all  these  are 
not  of  man  that  worketh,  but  of  God  that  giveth  grace. 

XI.  Absolute  Being  is  the  sumrnum  genus  embracing  all  being; 
but  in  one  sense  actual  phenomenal  being  is  wider,  because  it  is 
absolute  plus  phenomenal  limited  being.     This  phenomenal  side  is 


1  Kashifi's  abstract  of  the  Jlfasnavi,  calk'd  Lab  ul  labab,  arranges  the  matter  of  that 
poem  under  the  three  heads  of  the  law,  the  path,  and  the  truth. 

2  In  the  Nafliat  ul  tins,  the  Shaikh  of  Islam  is  quoted  as  saying,  "  God  is  veiled 
from  the  heart  of  the  man  who  relies  on  his  own  good  works."     Compare  Luther's 
doctrine  of  justification  by  faith. 


INTRODUCTION.  XV 

renewed  every  moment,  as  indicated  by  the  texts  about  '  the  new 
creation.'  Similarly  the  texts  about  '  the  resurrection  and  world  to 
come  '  indicate  that  the  dispositions  acquired  by  men  in  this  life  will 
then  be  manifested  in  '  spiritual  bodies,'  i.e.  forms  appropriate  to 
them.  The  perfect  will  then  drink  the  '  pure  wine '  of  union  with 
God.  There  will  remain  no  duality  or  distinction  of  persons. 
Hence  faith,  reason,  devotion,  paradise  and  houris  will  then  become 
an  empty  tale.1  Such  will  be  the  perfect  '  union '  in  the  world  to 
come,  but  in  this  world  all  ecstatic  union  is  followed  by  sobriety  and 
separation. 

XII.  Mahmud  concludes  this  part  of  the  discussion  by  reiterating 
his  main  thesis  that  all  things  are  One.    The  Eternal  and  the  temporal  ' 
are  not  two  distinct  entities,  since  the  temporal  is  merely  a  subjective  j 
illusion,  like  the  circle  of  fire  seen  when  a  single  spark  of  fire  is  i 
whirled  quickly  round. 

XIII.  to  XV.    These  last  three   sections  are  devoted  to  an  expla- 
nation of  the  figurative   language  whereby  the   Sufis   express  their 
conceptions  of  God  and  the  universe,  and  their  ecstatic  experiences. 
And  of  this  language  it  may  be  said  that  though  it  seems  irreverent 
and  unseemly  to  us,  it  did  not  seem  so  to  them.     As  Xenophanes  2 
saw,  men's  conceptions  of  the  Deity  bear  a  constant  relation  to  their 
own   moral   and   intellectual  stature.     Symbols  that  we   see  to  be 
inadequate  and  misleading,  were  not  improbably  the  highest  attainable 
by  the  untutored  minds   of    other   ages    and   countries,    and   thus 
possessed,  perhaps,  a  relative  goodness  of  their  own.     Answer  XV. 
shows   us   that   one   of  the   main  characteristics  of  the  Sufis  was 
their  readiness  to  recognise  and  appreciate  whatever  seemed  to  them 
to  be  good  and  true  in  other  religions,  such  as  Christianity,  Magianism, 


1  Law,  author  of  the  "  Serious  Call,"  got  rid  of  gross   material  conceptions  of 
heaven  much  in  the  same  way. — L.  Stephen,  English  Thought,  ii.  407. 

3   Lewes,  Hist,  of  Philosophy,  i.  40. 


XVI  INTRODUCTION. 

and  even  Idolatry  ;l  and  there  is  high  authority2  (if  authority  be 
needed)  for  thinking  it  not  inconsistent  with  our  loyalty  to  our  own 
religion  to  mete  out  similar  tolerant  measure  to  them. 

1  Dr.  Wolff  says  of  the  Sufis  of  Bokhara,  "  They  are  people  who  really  try,  as 
they  express  themselves,  to  '  come  nearer  to  God '  by  a  moral  life,  separation  from 
the  world,  meditation,  prayer,  and  reading  the  books  of  other  religious  sects." — 
Missionary  Tour,  p.  205. 

*  H.  g.  The  passage  from  St.  Augustine  quoted  by  Sale  as  the  motto  to  his  transla- 
tion of  the  Koran — "  Nulla  falsa  doctrina  est  qua  non  aliquid  veri  permisceat ;  "  and 
those  from  St.  Augustine,  St.  Clement  and  others,  quoted  by  Max  Muller  in  the 
Preface  to  his  "  Chips." 


ERRATA. 


Page  26,  note  5,  line  3,  for  soul,  read  reason. 

„  31,  note  2,  line  5,  for  or,  read  and. 

„  40,  note  3,  line  1,/or  beholds,  read  beholda. 

„  41,  couplet  409,  read  "  The  fourth  is  the  purification  of  the  secret  from  '  other.' 

,,  58,  couplet  588,  erase  of. 

,,  58,  note  4,  line  1,  erase  "  or  of  the  faith." 

,,  „        „         line  3,  insert  "  or  of  the  faith  "  after  "  knowledge  of  heart." 

„  62 — 3,  note  8,  for  everything,  read  every  action. 

PERSIAN  TEXT. 

Title-page,  line  2,  for  Juil ,  read  iUll . 
Couplet  rvo,  add  in  margin  jJjoU^  L. 

„         ru,  for  oJ«.j,  read  o J»j.     This  error  of  J  for  j  occurs  several  times. 


Jfit  tint  DUmre  af  <!50ir,  %  fgterriful,  %  Compassionate. 
EXORDIUM. 


IN  the  name  of  Him  who  taught  the  soul  to  think, 
And  kindled  the  heart's  lamp  with  the  light  of  soul ; ' 
By  Whose  light  the  two  worlds  were  illumined, 
By  Whose  grace  the  dust  of  Adam  bloomed  with  roses  ;' 
That  Almighty  one  who  in  the  twinkling  of  an  eye, 
From  Kaf  and  Nun  brought  forth  the  two  worlds  ! 2 
What  time  the  Kaf  of  His  power  breathed  on  the  pen,3 
It  cast  thousands  of  pictures  on  the  page  of  Not  being. 
5     From  that  breath  were  produced  the  two  worlds,4 
From  that  breath  proceeded  the  soul  of  Adam. 
In  Adam  were  manifested  reason  and  discernment, 
Whereby  he  perceived  the  principle  of  all  things. 
When  he  beheld  himself  a  specific  person, 
He  thought  within  himself  "  What  am  I  ?"5 
From  part  to  whole  he  made  a  transit, 
And  thence  returned  back  to  the  world. 
He  saw  that  the  world  is  an  imaginary  thing, 
Like  as  one  diffused  through  many  numbers.6 

1  /.  e.  The  reasonable  soul,  nafsi  natika. 

1  I.  e.  The  material  visible  world,  and  the  invisible,  spiritual  or  '  world  of 
command.'  ("  Are  not  creation  and  command  of  Him  ?  "  Koran,  Sura  VII.  52.) 
The  Sufis  identified  these  with  the  Platonic  worlds  of  ideals  and  of  sensible  objects. 
See  DaJ>istan-i-Muzahib,  p.  415  (Calcutta  edition). 

3  Pen  (kalam)  a  name  of  'AM  i  hull,  universal  reason,  the  first  emanation  from 
the  "  One."  Kaf,  i.  e.  kudrat,  power.  L. 

*  The  command  of  God,  Kun  fa-yakunu,  '  Be  and  it  was,'  is  here  alluded  to. 
Koran,  Sura  II.  3.       See  Psalm  xxxiii..  9. 
5  See  Milton's  Paradise  Lost,  VIII.  270. 

'  The  phenomenal  world  has  no  real  'objective'  existence.  It  is  only  the  repe- 
tition of  the  "  One,"  (L.),  who  is,  as  Milton  says : 

Infinite 
And  through  all  numbers  absolute,  though  One. 

Paradise  Lost,  VIII.  420. 
B 


2  GULSHAN    I   EAZ. 

10     The  worlds  of  command  and  of  creatures  proceed  from  one 
breath, 

And  the  moment  they  come  forth  they  go  away  again. 

Albeit  here  there  is  no  real  coming  and  going, 

Going,  when  you  consider  it,  is  naught  but  coming.1 

Things  revert  to  their  proper  original, 

All  are  one,  both  the  visible  and  the  invisible. 
.  God  most  high  is  the  eternal  one  who  with  a  breath 

Originates  and  terminates  both  worlds. 

The  world  of  command  and  that  of  creatures  are  here  one, 

One  becomes  many  and  many  few. 
15     All  these  varied  forms  arise  only  from  your  fancy, 

They  are  but  one  point  revolving  quickly  in  a  circle.2 

It  is  but  one  circular  line  from  first  to  last 

Whereon  the  creatures  of  this  world  are  journeying ; 

On  this  road  the  prophets  are  as  princes, 

Guides,  leaders  and  counsellors. 

And  of  them  our  lord  Muhammad  is  the  chief, 

At  once  the  first  and  the  last  in  this  matter. 

The  One  (Ahad)  was  made  manifest  in  the  mini  of  Ahmad. 

In  this  circuit  the  first  emanation  became  the  last.3 
20     A  single  mim*  divides  Ahad  from  Ahmad  ; 

The  world  is  immersed  in  that  one  mini. 

In  him  is  completed  the  end  of  this  road, 

In  him  is  the  station  of  the  text  ' I  call  to  God,'* 

1  See  Answer  XI.  Coming  and  going  are  mere  subjective  impressions  produced 
on  the  mind  of  the  percipient  by  the  rapid  renewals  of  Divine  manifestations.  L. 

*  See  Answer  XII.,  i.  e.  the  one  Divine  Being  who  is  evolved,  and  rayed  out 
through  His  various  emanations  down  to  man, — the  lowest  point  in  the  circle, — 
and  is  united  again  to  Himself  in  man's  upward  journey  back  to  Unity.  L. 

1  Ahmad,  or  Muhammad,  is  the  type  of  the  "  perfect  man,"  who  is  the  theatre  or 
exhibition  place  of  all  the  Divine  names  and  attributes.  The  first  emanation,  'ayn, 
was  universal  reason,  and  this  descended,  through  the  intermediate  emanations,  into 
man,  and  is  again  carried  upwards  by  the  "  perfect  man  "  in  his  ascent  to  "  Unity," 
and  is  united  with  the  "  One."  Thus  the  first  becomes  the  last.  L. 

4  Mim,  the  forty  grades  of  emanations,  from  universal  reason  down  to  man.      L. 

"  Koran,  Sura  XII.  108. 


GULSHAN    I    KAZ.  O 

His  entrancing  state  is  the  union  of  union, 
His  heart  ravishing  beauty  the  light  of  light. 
He  went  before  and  all  souls  follow  after 
Grasping  the  skirts  of  his  garment. 
As  for  the  saints  on  this  road  before  and  behind 
They  each  give  news  of  their  own  stages. 

25     When  they  have  reached  their  limits 

They  discourse  of  the  '  knower '  and  the  '  known,' ' 
One  in  the  ocean  of  unity  says  'I  am  the  Truth,'2 
Another  speaks  of  near,  and  far,3  and  the  moving  boat, 
One,  having  acquired  the  external  knowledge, 
Gives  news  of  the  dry  land  of  the  shore.4 
One  takes  out  the  pearl  and  it  becomes  a  stumbling-block, 
Another  leaves  the  pearl  and  it  remains  in  its  shell.5 
One  tells  openly  this  tale  of  part  and  of  whole,6 
Another  takes  his  text  from  eternal  and  temporal : 7 

30     One  tells  of  curl,  of  mole,  and  of  eyebrow,8 
And  displays  to  view  wine,  lamp  and  beauty.9 
One  speaks  of  his  own  being  and  its  illusion,10 
Another  is  devoted  to  idols  and  the  Magian  girdle.11 
Since  the  language  of  each  is  according  to  his  degree  of  progress, 
They  are  hard  to  be  understood  of  the  people. 
He  who  is  perplexed  as  to  these  mysteries 
Is  bound  to  learn  their  meaning. 

I  See  Answer  V.  !  See  Answer  VII. 
3  See  Answer  IX.                                                    *  See  Answer  X. 

*  See  Answer  IV.,  Illustration  2.    The  positive  law  is  the  shell,  and  Sufi  mysteries 
the  pearl  within  it.     One  exposes  these  mysteries  to  the  vulgar  and  causes  scandal, 
another  keeps  them  concealed.     L. 

*  See  Answer  XT.  '  See  Answer  XII. 
6  See  Answer  XIII.                                                         '  See  Answer  XIV. 
10  /.  e.,  of  the  illusive  unreal  nature  of  all  phenomena,  ta'ayyunha.    L. 

II  See  Answer  XV. 


B    2 


THE  CAUSE  OF  WRITING  THIS  BOOK. 


Seven  and  ten  years  had  passed  after  seven  hundred, 
From  the  Flight,  when  lo,  in  the  month  Shawal1 

35     A  messenger  of  a  thousand  graces  and  virtues 
Arrived  at  the  behest  of  the  men  of  Khorasan. 
A  great  man,  who  in  that  country  is  famed2 
For  his  varied  learning  as  a  fount  of  light, — • 
Whom  all  the  men  of  Khorasan,  great  and  small, 
Pronounce  to  be  better  than  all  men  of  this  age,— 
Had  written  an  epistle  on  the  matter  of  mystery 
Addressed  to  the  masters  of  mystery. 
Therein  many  difficult  expressions 
In  use  amongst  the  masters  of  indications, 

40     Had  been  versified  in  the  form  of  several  questions, 
A  world  of  mystery  in  a  few  words. 
When  the  messenger  read  that  epistle,  forthwith 
The  news  was  noised  abroad  by  many  mouths. 
All  the  nobles  present  in  that  congregation, 
Turned  their  eyes  upon  this  durvesh. 
One  who  was  a  man  well  versed  in  affairs,3 
And  who  had  heard  these  mysteries  from  me  a  hundred  times, 
Said  to  me,  "  Tell  the  answers  off  straightway, 
"  That  the  men  of  the  world  may  profit  thereby." 

45     I  replied,  "  What  need  ?  for  again  and  again 
"  Have  I  set  forth  these  problems  in  treatises." 
"  True,"  said  he,  "  but  I  hope  to  have  from  you 
Answers  in  rhyme  corresponding  to  these  questions." 

1  717  A.H.=1317  A.D. 

Amir  Hosaini  is  the  person  referred  to.     See  Introduction. 
Lahiji  says  the  name  of  this  person  was  Shaikh  Aminuddin,  and  the  conversation 
took  place  at  Tabriz. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  0 

"Wherefore  at  his  solicitation  I  began 

An  answer  to  that  epistle  in  concise  terms. 

Forthwith,  in  that  illustrious  congregation, 

I  pronounced  this  discourse  without  hesitation  or  repetition. 

Now,  with  their  wonted  favour  and  kindness, 

They  will  pardon  my  shortcomings ; 
50     All  know  that  this  person  in  his  whole  life 

Has  never  attempted  to  write  poetry. 

And  though  his  talents  be  competent  thereto, 

He  has  rarely  had  to  compose  verse. 

Though  he  has  composed  many  works  in  prose, 

He  has  never  compiled  a  masnavi  in  verse. 

Prosody  and  rhyme  weigh  not  mysteries,1 

The  pearl  of  mystery  is  not  held  in  all  vessels. 

Mystery  cannot  be  compressed  into  letters, 

The  Red  Sea  is  not  contained  in  a  jug. 
55     Why  should  I,  to  whom  even  words  are  lacking, 

Why  should  I  take  on  myself  a  further  burden  ? 

This  is  not  boasting,  but  it  is  by  way  of  compliment 

And  of  apology  to  the  men  of  heart. 

I  take  no  reproach  to  myself  for  my  poor  poetry, 

For  no  poet  like  'Attar  is  born  in  a  hundred  centuries. 

Were  there  a  hundred  worlds  of  mystery  set  forth  in  this  wise, 

They  would  be  only  one  grain  from  'Attar's  shop,2 

But  all  this  have  I  written  of  my  own  experience, 

And  not  plagiarized  as  a  demon  from  angels.3 
60     In  short,  I  delivered  the  answers  to  the  questions 

Off  hand,  each  to  each,  neither  more  nor  less. 

The  messenger  took  the  letter  with  reverence, 

And  departed  again  by  the  road  that  he  came. 

1  Prosody  can  "  weigh"  heavy  and  light  (or,  as  we  should  say,  long  and  short) 
syllables,  but  not  Sufi  mysteries.     L. 

2  Fariduddin  'Attar,  author  of  the  Mantik  tit  Tair,  &c.,  was  a  druggist. 

1  Koran,  Sura  XV.  18.      The  devils  are  said  to  ascend  to  overhear  the  tiilk  ot 
the  angels  in  heaven. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 


Again  that  noble  was  instant  with  me, 
Saying,  "  Do  me  yet  another  favour, 
"  Expound  these  mysteries  which  you  have  spoken. 
"  Out  of  theory  bring  them  into  evidence."1 
I  did  not  think  it  possible  for  me  at  that  season 
To  treat  thereof  with  the  unction5  of  ecstasy, 
65     For  the  explanation  thereof  in  speech  is  impossible,3 
The  master  of  ecstasy  alone  knows  what  is  ecstasy. 
Nevertheless,  according  to  the  word  of  the  teacher  of  the  faith, 
I  rejected  not  the  postulant  of  the  faith,4 
But  to  the  end  that  these  mysteries  might  be  explained, 
The  parrot  of  my  eloquence  lifted  up  his  voice. 
By  aid  of  heavenly  grace  and  divine  blessing 
I  spoke  the  whole  discourse  in  a  few  hours. 
When  my  heart  craved  of  heaven  a  title  for  this  book, 
There  came  an  answer  to  my  heart,  "  It  is  our  Rose  Garden." 
70     Since  heaven  has  named  it  "  Rose  Garden," 
May  it  enlighten  the  eyes  of  all  souls. 

1  From  demonstrated  knowledge,  'Mm  ill  yakin,  bring  them  to  the  stage  of 
experienced  or  evidenced  knowledge,  'ayn  ul  yakin.  The  first  is  the  knowledge 
gained  by  logical  demonstration,  the  second  that  "  spiritually  discerned "  by 
illumination,  Sashf.  L. 

1  Zauk,  '  taste,'  '  delight,'  '  religious  exaltation.' 
Compare  1  Corinthians,  ii.  14. 

4  Alluding  to  the  Hadis,  "  Reject  not  questioners." 


QUESTION  I. 

First  of  all  I  am  perplexed  about  my  own  thought ; 
What  is  that  which  they  call  thinking  ? 


ANSWER  I.1 

You  say,  "  Tell  me  what  is  '  thinking,' 
"  Since  I  am  perplexed  as  to  its  meaning." 
Thinking  is  passing  from  the  false  to  the  truth, 
And  seeing  the  Absolute  Whole  in  the  part. 
Philosophers  who  have  written  "foooks  on  it, 
Say  as  follows  when  they  are  denning  it, 
75     That  when  a  conception 2  is  formed  in  the  mind, 
It  is  first  of  all  named  reminiscence.3 
And  when  you  pass  on  from  this  in  thinking,4 
It  is  called  by  the  learned  interpretation.5 
When  conceptions  are  properly  arranged  in  the  mind, 
The  result  with  logicians  is  known  as  thinking. 
From  proper  arrangement  of  known  conceptions 
The  unknown  proposition c  becomes  known. 
The  major  premiss  is  a  father,  the  minor  a  mother, 
And  the  conclusion  a  son,  0  brother ! 

1  Thinking  is  the  means  to  reach  knowledge  of  God,  m'arifat ;  and  thinking  is 
of  two  kinds,  logical  demonstration,  and  spiritual  illumination.  L. 

*  Tasawwur,  conception,  "  idea." 

3  TazaJcknr,  reminiscence,  the  anamnesis  of  Plato.  All  major  premisses,  or  lirst 
principles,  says  Lahiji,  are  gained  by  intuition,  or  reminiscence  of  ideas  known  to  the 
mind  in  a  former  state. 

*  Compare  Eisala  Shamsiya  5,  '  Part  is  intuitive  and  part  is  inferential  and  the 
result  of  thought,  i.e.  of  such  an  arrangement  of  known  things,  that  it  leads  to  the 
knowledge  of  unknown  things.'     See  Aristotle,  An  Pri.  I.  L  6. 

5  'Ibrat,  from  'air,  passing  over,  interpretation,  explication,  probably  a  translation 
of  Aristotle's  Peri  Hermeneias,  which  treats  of  propositions. 

6  Tasdik,  assertion,  verification,  proposition,  as  in  Risala  Shamsiya  '3. 


8  GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 

80     But  to  learn  of  what  kind  this  arrangement  is, 
Reference  must  be  made  to  books  of  logic. 
Moreover,  unless  divine  guidance  aids  it, 
Verily  logic  is  mere  bondage  of  forms.1 
That  road  is  long  and  hard,  leave  it, 
Like  Moses  for  a  season  cast  away  that  staff.2 
Come  for  a  season  into  the  "  Valley  of  Peace,"3 
Hear  with  faith  the  call,  "  Verily  I  am  God." 
He  that  knows  "  The  Truth,"4  and  to  whom  Unity  is  revealed, 
Sees  at  the  first  glance  the  light  of  very  Being. 

85     Nay  more,  as  he  sees  by  illumination  that  pure  Light, 
He  sees  God  first  in  everything  that  he  sees ; 
Abstraction 5  is  a  condition  of  good  thinking, 
For  then  the  lightning  o°f  divine  guidance  illumines  us. 
To  him,  whom  God  guides  not  into  the  road, 
It  will  not  be  disclosed  by  use  of  logic. 
Forasmuch  as  the  philosopher  is  bewildered, 
He  sees  in  things  nothing  but  the  contingent ; 

1  Taklid.     See  note  on  couplet  109. 

!  Koran,  Sura  XX.  14  and  11  :  "  What  is  that  in  thy  right  hand,  0  Moses  ? 
He  answered,  It  is  my  staff  whereon  I  lean,  and  wherewith  I  beat  down  leaves  for 
my  flock.  God  said,  Cast  it  down,  0  Moses !  And  he  cast  it  down,  and  behold  it 
became  a  serpent,  which  ran  about  ....  And  when  he  was  come  near  unto  it  (the 
burning  bush),  a  voice  called  to  him,  saying,  0  Moses,  verily  I  am  thy  Lord, 
wherefore  put  off  thy  shoes,  for  thou  art  in  the  sacred  Valley  '  Towa.'  " 

*  I.e.,  the  tarikat,  or  Sufi's  progress  and  course  of  illumination  which  leads  him  to 
the  true  knowledge  of  God.     L. 

4  The  Truth,  Hakk,  is  the  usual  Sufi  expression  for  the  Absolute  Divine  Being. 

*  Tajrid,  stripping  off,  making  bare,  seclusion  from  the  world,  logical  abstraction, 
purification  from  self.     Lahiji  explains  it  as  '  Passing  by  the  stages  of  carnal  lusts, 
and  mental  operations,  and  human  pleasures  and  relations,  and  emerging  from  the 
limitation  of  self,  which  veils  man's  real  essence.'    Similarly,  Plotinus  directs  the  mys- 
tical aspirant  to  '  simplify  his  nature,'  that  he  may  become  identified  with  the  infinite. 
And  Dionysius,  the  pseudo-Areopagite,  exhorts  his  disciple  '  to  abandon  the  senses 
and  all  operations  of  the  intellect,  all  objects  of  sense  and  all  objects  of  thought,  and 
ignorantly  to  strive  upwards  towards  union  with  Him  who  is  above  all  essence  and 
knowledge ;  inasmuch  as  by  separation  of  himself  from  all  things,  he  will  be  exalted 
to  the  super-essential  radiance  of  the  Divine  darkness.' — Yaughan,  Hours  with  the 
Mystics,  I.  288. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  9 

From  the  contingent  he  seeks  to  prove  the  necessary, 
Therefore  is  he  bewildered  at  the  essence  of  the  necessary. 

90     Sometimes  he  travels  backwards  in  a  circle,1 

Sometimes  he  is  imprisoned  in  the  chain  of  proofs. 
While  his  reason  goes  deep  into  phenomenal  existence, 
His  feet  are  caught  hi  the  chain  of  proofs. 
All  things  are  manifested  through  their  likes, 
But  "  The  Truth  "  has  neither  rival  nor  like, 
Since  "  The  Truth  "  has  neither  rival  nor  peer, 
I  know  not  how  you  can  know  Him.* 
Necessary  matter  has  no  sample  in  contingent  :s 
How  can  man  know  it,  tell  me  how  ?  * 

95     Fool  that  he  is  !  for  he  seeks  the  blazing  sun 
By  the  dim  light  of  a  torch  in  the  desert. 

ILLUSTBATION.5 

If  the  sun  tarried  always  in  one  position, 
And  if  his  shining  were  all  after  one  manner, 

1  He  argues  in  a  circle  ;  proves  one  contingent  proposition  by  another  contingent, 
which  in  its  turn  is  proved  by  the  first,  and  so  on  in  an  endless  circle.  L. 

1  Sense  supplies  us  with  finite  objects  only,  and  reason  has  only  these  finite  objects 
to  work  on.  It  cannot  transcend  them,  or  mount  from  them  to  the  infinite. 

*  The  figment  of  contingent  being  occurs  for  the  first  time  in  the  fifth  book  of 
Plato's  Eepublic.  Being,  he  argues,  is  the  object  of  knowledge,  and  not  being  of 
ignorance,  and  therefore  opinion  which  lies  between  them  must  have  an  object  of 
its  own  as  well,  and  this  object  is  intermediate  or  contingent  being,  which  is  and 
is  not,  and  partakes  both  of  existence  arid  non-existence.  On  this  Professor  Jowett 
notes  :— "  Plato  did  not  remark  that  the  degrees  of  knowledge  in  the  subject  have 
nothing  corresponding  to  them  in  the  object.  With  him  a  word  must  answer  to  an 
idea,  he  could  not  conceive  of  an  opinion  which  was  an  opinion  about  nothing." — 
Jowett' s  Plato,  II.  59. 

4  Compare  Hafiz,  Ode  355  (Brockhaus1  edition)  : 

'  But  how  can  our  eyes  behold  Thee  as  Thou  art  ? 
'  As  our  sight  is,  so  see  we,  and  only  in  part.' 

5  Tamsil,  simile,  analogy  in  logic.    Schmolders  (Documenta  Philosophise  Arabum). 
This  illustration   was   probably  suggested  by  Ghazzali.     See   Lewes,   History   of 
Philosophy,  II.  51. 

C 


10  GULSHAN    I   RAZ. 

None  would  know  that  these  beams  are  from  him, 
There  would  be  no  distinction  between  kernel  and  husk. 
Know  the  whole  world  is  a  beam  of  the  light  of"  The  Truth," 
Yet  "  The  Truth"  within  it  is  concealed  from  manifestation  ;l 
And  since  the  light  of  "  The  Truth  "  alters  not  nor  varies, 
And  is  void  of  change  and  transitoriness, 

100     So  you  fancy  that  this  world  of  itself  is  permanent 
And  enduring  always  of  its  own  nature. 
A  man  who  relies  on  far-sighted  reason2 
Has  much  bewilderment  before  him, 
From  far-sightedness  of  overweening  reason 
One  derives  philosophy,  another  the  Incarnation.3 
Reason  cannot  endure  the  light  of  that  face, 
Go  !  that  you  may  behold  it,  seek  another  eye. 
Since  the  two  eyes  of  the  philosopher  see  double,4 
He  is  impotent  to  behold  the  unity  of  "  The  Truth." 

105     From  blindness  arose  the  doctrine  of  '  Assimilation,'5 
From  one-eyedness  that  of  God's  remoteness.6 
From  the  same  cause  arose  false  and  vain  Metempsychosis,7 

1  Compare  Tennyson,  '  The  Higher  Pantheism ' : 

'  The  sun,  the  moon,  the  stars,  the  seas,  the  hills  and  the  plains, 
Are  not  these,  0  Soul,  the  vision  of  Him  who  reigns  ? 
Is  not  the  vision  He,  tho'  He  be  not  that  which  He  seems  ?  ' 
J  Far-sighted  reason  goes  astray  because  it  looks  afar  off  for"  The  Truth,"  which  is 
nearer  to  us  than  our  neck  vein.'     L. 

*  The   philosopher   regards   necessary   and   contingent   matter   as   two    distinct 
entities,  whereas  there  is  only  the  '  One.'     L. 

4  Halul,  descending,  descent  of  the  Spirit,  the  incarnation  of  God  in  Christ.  L. 
The  Sufi  sect  called  Nasriak,  or  Haluliah,  held  that  God  had  descended  into  indi- 
vidual men.  See  Sale's  Koran,  Prelim.  Discourse,  125;  Malcolm's  Persia,  II.  271. 

s  Tashbih,  assimilation.  The  "  Assimilators,"  says  Lahiji,  liken  God  to  a  material 
body  dwelling  above  the  highest  heaven,  'arsli,  (i.e.  they  are,  as  we  should  say, 
anthropomorphists).  Lahiji  says  these  two  doctrines  are  erroneous  apart,  but  true 
together.  God  is  remote  from  contingency,  but  is  connected  with  the  phenomenal 
world  in  that  it  is  His  reflection. 

*  Tanzih,  declaring  God  to  be  without  an  equal,  exalted  above,  and  remote  from 
matter. 

7  TanasuJch,  transmigration  of  souls. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  11 

Since  it  had  its  origin  from  defective  sight. 
He  is  like  one  born  blind,  cut  off  from  perfection, 
The  man  who  follows  the  road  of  schism,1 
Men  of  externals  have  ophthalmia  in  both  eyes,' 
For  they  see  in  external  objects  naught  but  the  external. 
The  theologian3  who  has  no  perception  of  Unitarianism  * 
Is  in  utter  darkness  in  clouds  and  bondage  of  dogmas  ; 5 
110     Whatever  each  says  about  Unity,  more  or  less, 
Affords  a  specimen  of  his  own  power  of  insight. 
The  Divine  Essence  is  freed  from  where,  how,  and  why.6 
Let  His  glory  be  exalted  above  what  men  say  of  Him.1 

1  The  schismatics,  or  Mutazzalites,  deny  the  eternity,  baka,  of  God,  and  arc- 
therefore  debarred  from  attaining  to  true  insight  into  the  verities  of  things.  L. 

*  The  men  of  externals  (ahl  i  ZaJiir)  are  dominated  by  externals,  and  do  not 
penetrate  to  "  The  Truth"  within  them.  L. 

'  The  Hutakallamin,  or  scholastic  theologians,  are  '  they  who  tread  the  road  to 
Divine  knowledge  with  the  foot  of  logic  and  not  of  illumination.'  L.  Al-kalam  is 
defined  in  the  Dabistan  as  the  science  enabling  one  to  confirm  the  truth  of  religion 
by  logical  demonstration,  and  thus  corresponds  to  the  scholasticism  of  mediaeval 
Europe. 

4  TauTiid,  Unification,  Unitarianism,  belief  in  God's  unity,  acknowledging  that  all 
things  are  One.     See  Answer  VII.  and  Hafiz  (Brockhaus'  edition),  Ode  405  : 
'  Hafiz,  when  preaching  unity,  with  Unitarian  pen 

Blot  out  and  cancel  every  page  that  tells  of  spirits  and  men.' 

In  the  Dabistan,  chapter  xi.,  is  given  a  list  of  the  principal  technical  terms  of 
the  Muhammadan  faith,  with  their  exoteric  or  ordinary  meanings,  and  with  the 
esoteric  meanings  given  to  them  by  Miyan  Bayazid,  a  Punjabi  Sufi.  The  work  of 
Tauhid  is  said  to  be  "  To  annihilate  self  in  the  absolute  Truth,  and  to  become  eternal 
in  the  Absolute,  and  to  be  made  one  with  the  One,  and  to  abstain  from  evil." 

''  Taklid,  putting  a  collar  on  the  neck,  blind  imitation,  canting,  bondage, 
subservience  to  authority ;  compare  the  definition  of  religio  from  religare.  Old 
women's  religion  is  said  to  consist  of  taklid.  The  perfected  Sufi  advances  from  the 
stage  of  bondage,  taklid,  to  that  of  absolute  liberty  and  consciousness  of  truth,  itlak 
wa  talikik.  Compare  St.  Paul's  expressions,  "  carnal  ordinances,"  "  law  of  a  carnal 
commandment,"  "  the  yoke  of  bondage." 

'  I.e.,  from  quantity,  quality,  and  relation.  He  is  therefore  incognoscible  by  the 
mind  of  man  so  long  as  it  is  not  '  illumined  '  by  Divine  grace.  L. 

'  Koran,  Sura  XVI.  3  :   '  Let  Him  be  exalted  above  the  gods  they  join  with  Him.' 


c  2 


12  GULSHAN   I    RAZ. 

QUESTION  II. 

What  sort  of  thought  is  the  condition  of  my  path  ? 
Wherefore  is  it  sometimes  a  duty,  sometimes  a  sin  ? 


ANSWER  II. 

To  think  on  the  mercies  is  the  condition  of  your  path,1 
But  to  think  on  the  essence  of  "  The  Truth"  is  grievous  sin. 
Thinking  on  the  essence  of  "  The  Truth"  is  vain ; 
Know  it  is  impossible  to  demonstrate  the  manifest.2 

115     Since  His  works  are  manifested  from  His  essence, 
His  essence  is  not  manifested  from  His  works.3 
The  whole  universe  is  exposed  to  view  by  His  light, — 
But  how  is  He  exposed  to  view  in  the  universe  ?4 
The  light  of  His  essence  is  not  contained  in  phenomena, 
For  the  glory  of  His  majesty  is  exceeding  great. 
Let  reason  go,  and  abide  in  "  The  Truth." 
The  eye  of  a  bat  endures  not  the  bright  sun. 
In  that  place  where  God's  light  is  our  guide, 
What  room  is  there  for  the  message  of  Gabriel  ? 5 

120     Though  the  angels  stand  hard  by  the  throne, 
They  reach  not  the  station,  1 1  am  with  God.' s 

1  Alluding  to  the  Hadis,  '  Think  on  the  mercies  of  God,  not  on  the  essence 
of  God.' 

*  Talisil  i  hasil,  "  The  Truth  "  is  more  general  than  His  works,  and  thus  demon- 
strating Him  from  His  works  is  demonstrating  the  general  and  more  known  from  the 
particular  and  less  known.  And  again,  knowledge  of  God  is  gained  by  illumination 
and  intuition,  and  demonstration  of  ultimate  facts  of  consciousness  is  impossible.  L. 

1  Aiat,  texts,  names  of  God,  works  or  signs  of  God. 

4  The  face  of  "  The  Truth "  is  not  displayed  till  all  the  illusory  phenomena, 
which  veil  it,  are  annihilated.  L.  '  But  is  it  unreasonable  to  confess  that  we 
believe  in  God  not  by  reason  of  the  nature  which  conceals  him,  but  by  reason 
of  the  supernatural  in  man  which  reveals  him  ?  ' — Jacobi,  quoted  in  Hamilton's 
Metaphysics,  I.  40. 

1  Gabriel  was  the  "angel  of  revelation."     See  Koran,  Sura  II.  91. 

'  This  refers  to  the  tradition,  '  There  are  times  when  I  am  with  God  in  such 
wise  that  neither  highest  angel  nor  prophet  apostle  can  attain  thereto.' 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  13 

Like  as  His  light  utterly  burns  up  the  angels,1 
So  it  burns  up  reason  from  head  to  foot. 
Reason's  light  applied  to  the  very  Light  of  lights, 
Is  as  the  eye  of  the  head  applied  to  the  sun. 
When  the  object  seen  is  very  near  to  the  eye, 
The  eye  is  darkened  so  that  it  cannot  see  it.2 
This  blackness,3  if  you  know  it,  is  the  light  of  very  Being ; 
In  the  land  of  darkness  is  the  well-spring  of  life.  * 
125     Since  the  dark  destroys  the  light  of  vision, 

Give  up  looking,  for  this  is  no  place  for  looking.5 
What  connection  has  the  dust  with  the  pure  world  ? 
Its  perception  is  impotence  to  perceive  perception.6 
Blackness  of  face7  is  not  divorced  from  the  contingent 
In  the  two  worlds ;  Allah  is  all  wise. 

1  All  phenomena  are  annihilated  in  Him.     L. 

1  The  mental  bewilderment  or  darkness  which  occurs  to  the  mystic  is  the  light 
of  Absolute  Being  approaching  close  to  him.  L. 

1  See  a  passage  of  Dionysius,  the  pseudo-Arcopagite,  quoted  in  Tholuck  (Bliithen- 
sammlung  aus  der  Morgenlandischen  Mystik),  p.  9  :  "  Then  is  he  delivered  from  all 
things  seeing  or  being  seen,  and  dives  down  into  the  truly  mystical  darkness  of 
ignorance,  wherein  he  closes  up  all  the  intellectual  apprehensions,  and  finds  himself 
in  the  utterly  impalpable  and  invisible,  being  entirely  in  Him  who  is  beyond  all, 
and  in  none  else,  either  himself  or  another  ;  being  united  as  to  his  nobler  part  with 
the  utterly  unknown  by  the  cessation  of  all  knowing,  and  at  the  same  time,  in  that 
very  knowing  nothing,  knowing  what  transcends  the  mind  of  man."  And  Blosius 
(quoted  in  Vaughan,  1. 290) :  "  The  light  is  called  dark  from  its  excessive  brightness." 

4  Alluding  to  the  "  water  of  life  "  found  by  the  prophet  Khizr  in  the  land  of 
darkness. 

*  When  the  mystic  annihilates  all  phenomena,  self  included,  which  veil  the  face 
of  "  The  Truth,"  and  is  drawn  near  to,  and  united  with  "  The  Truth,"  seer  and 
seen  are  identified,  and  looking  is  no  longer  possible. 

*  The  dust,  i.e.  the  contingent   is  naught  but  the  reflection  in  not  being  of 
Necessary    Being,    which  in   itself  is   pure  from   the   stain   of    contingency    and 
plurality.     Therefore  the  contingent  is  impotent  to  perceive  "  The  Truth "  in  the 
ordinary  way,  and  its  highest  degree  of  perception  is  to  be  absorbed  in  the  "  The 
Truth,"    when  its  eyes  are  blinded   by   excess  of  light,  and  its  vision  is   uncon- 
sciousness,— inability  to  be  conscious  of  seeing.     L. 

7  Blackness  of  face=nothingness,  not  being.  The  contingent  is  naught  but  not 
being,  and  its  highest  perfection  is  to  be  conscious  of  this,  aud  to  annihilate  self  by 
absorption  in  "  The  Truth."  L. 


14  GULSHAN   I   EAZ. 

Blackness  of  face  in  both  worlds  is  poverty,1 
Blackness  is  most  precious,  neither  more  nor  less. 
What  shall  I  say  ?  since  this  saying  is  fine, 
'A  light  night  that  shineth  in  a  dark  day.'2 
130     On  this  place  of  witnessing  which  is  the  light  of  Epiphany,* 
I  have  much  to  say,  but  not  to  say  it  is  best. 

ILLUSTRATION. 

If  you  desire  to  behold  the  eye  of  the  sun, 
You  must  make  use  of  another  body ; 
Since  the  eye  of  the  head  has  not  strength  enough, 
You  may  look  on  the  brilliant  sun  in  the  water. 
Since  its  brightness  shows  less  brightly  therein, 
You  can  bear  to  look  on  it  for  a  longer  space. 
Not  being4  is  the  mirror  of  absolute  Being, 
Therein  is  reflected  the  shining  of  "  The  Truth." 
135     When  Not  being  is  set  opposite  to  Being, 
It  catches  its  reflection  in  a  moment. 
That  Unity  is  exposed  to  view  in  this  plurality, 
Like  as  when  you  count  one  it  becomes  many. 

1  Referring  to  the  Hadis,  '  Poverty  is  my  peace.'  Poverty  with  the  Sufis  means 
self  annihilation. 

1  This  darkness  is  light,  because  it  shows  "  The  Truth,"  free  from  the  veil  of 
plurality.  It  shines  in  a  day,  i.  e.  the  visible  world  of  phenomena,  but  this  day  is 
dark  because  phenomena  veil  "  The  Truth."  L. 

3  Divine  Epiphanies,  such  as  that  to  Moses  at  the  burning  bush,  and  to  Mohammad 
on  the  night  of  his  ascension.  See  couplet  367. 

1  'Adm,  privation  of  being,  not  being.  The  '  to  me  on  '  of  the  Eleatics,  handed  on 
to  the  Sufis  through  Plato,  Plotinus  and  the  Arabian  philosophers.  See  Jami,  TuJifat- 
ul-Inrar.  Mokamat,  I. : — 

'  In  its  cradle  lay  with  suspended  breath 
The  infant  of  creation  in  the  sleep  of  not  being. 
The  eyes  of  that  Beauty  seeing  what  was  not 
Beheld  the  non-existent  as  existent. 
Though  he  beheld  in  His  own  perfections 
The  beauties  of  all  things  and  their  qualities, 
Yet  He  desired  that  in  another  mirror 
They  might  be  displayed  to  His  view.' 


GULSHAN    I    BAZ.  15 

Though  all  numbers  have  one  for  their  starting  point, 

Nevertheless  you  never  come  to  the  end  of  them. 

Forasmuch  as  Not  being  in  itself  is  pure, 

Therein  is  reflected  '  The  hidden  treasure.' 

Read  the  tradition  ' I  ivas  a  hidden  treasure,'1 

That  you  may  see  clearly  this  concealed  mystery. 
140     Not  being  is  the  mirror,  the  world  the  reflection,  and  man 

Is  as  the  reflected  eye  of  The  unseen  Person. 

You  are  that  reflected  eye,  and  He  the  light  of  the  eye, 

In  that  eye  His  eye  sees  His  own  eye.2 

The  world  is  a  man  and  man  is  a  world  : 3 

There  is  no  clearer  explanation  than  this. 

When  you  look  well  into  the  root  of  this  matter, 

He  is  at  once  seer,  seeing  eye,  and  thing  seen. 

The  holy  tradition4  has  declared  this, 

And,  '  without  eye  or  ear,'  demonstrated  it. 
145     Know  the  world  is  a  mirror  from  head  to  foot,5 

In  every  atom  are  a  hundred  blazing  suns. 

If  you  cleave  the  heart  of  one  drop  of  water, 

A  hundred  pure  oceans  emerge  from  it. 

If  you  examine  closely  each  grain  of  dust, 

A  thousand  Adams  may  be  seen  in  it. 

1  Alluding  to  the  tradition,  '  David  inquired,  saying,  O  Lord,  why  hast  Thou 
created  mankind  ?  God  said,  I  was  a  hidden  treasure,  and  I  desired  to  become 
known,  and  I  created  the  world  in  order  to  be  known.' 

1  Compare  a  somewhat  similar  passage  in  the  JDnindogya  TTpanishad,  VIII., 
7—12,  quoted  in  Max  Miiller's  Hibbert  Lectures,  318—321.  '  Man,'  says  Lahiji, 
'is  the  eye  of  the  world,  whereby  God  sees  his  own  works.'  Compare  Hegel.  M. 
Miiller,  Hibbert  Lectures,  20. 

3  Man,  being  the  epitome  of  all  the  Divine  names  and  qualities,  is  the  microcosm, 
and  the  world  is  '  the  great  man,'  because  it  bears  to  man,  '  the  eye  of  the  world,' 
the  relation  of  a  man  to  one  of  his  members.    L.     Compare  George  Herbert : — 

'  Man  is  one  world,  and  hath  another  to  attend  him.' 

4  "  My  servant  draws  nigh  to  me  by  pious  works  till  I  love  him,  and  when  I  love 
him,  I  am  his  eye,  his  ear,  his  tongue,  his  foot,  his  hand,  and  by  me  he  sees,  hears, 
talks,  walks,  and  tastes."     L. 

8  Through  this  process  of  reflection  every  atom  is  potentially  a  mirror  of  any  and 
all  the  Divine  names  and  qualities,  and  when  any  atom  puts  off  its  limitation  and 
phenomenal  character  it  becomes  "  the  AIL"  L. 


16  GULSHAN    I    BAZ. 

In  its  members  a  gnat  is  like  an  elephant, 

In  its  qualities  a  drop  of  rain  is  like  the  Nile. 

The  heart  of  a  barley-corn  equals  a  hundred  harvests, 

A  world  dwells  in  the  heart  of  a  millet  seed. 

150     In  the  wing  of  a  gnat  is  the  ocean  of  life,1 
In  the  pupil  of  the  eye  a  heaven. 
What  though  the  corn  grain  of  the  heart2  be  small, 
It  is  a  station  for  the  Lord  of  both  worlds  to  dwell  therein. 
Therein  are  gathered  the  two  worlds, 
Sometimes  Iblis  and  sometimes  Adam.3 
Behold  the  world  mingled  together, 
Angels  with  demons,  Satan  with  the  archangel. 
All  mingled  like  unto  seed  and  fruit, 
Infidel  with  faithful,  and  faithful  with  infidel. 

155     Together  are  gathered,  in  the  point  of  the  present/ 
All  cycles  and  seasons,  day,  month,  and  year. 
World  without  beginning  is  world  without  end, 
The  mission  of  Jesus  falls  with  the  creation  of  Adam.5 
From  every  point  in  this  concatenated  circle 
A  thousand  forms  are  drawn ; 
Every  point  as  it  revolves  in  a  circle 
Is  now  a  centre,  now  a  circling  circumference.6 


1  I.e.,  absolute  Being.     L. 

1  The  heart's  core, — the  drop  of  black  blood  in  the  heart,  supposed  by  Muham- 
madans  to  be  the  principle  of  life.  L. 

1  Adam  is  a  manifestation  of  the  Divine  beauty,  jamal.   and   Iblis  of  Divine 
majesty  and  wrath,  jalal.     L. 
4  Compare : 

'  Nothing  is  there  to  come,  and  nothing  past, 
But  an  eternal  now  does  always  last.' 

Cowley,  Davideis,  I.  302. 

6  The  last  event  in  Divine  history  coincides  in  point  of  time  with  the  first.  All 
things,  whatever  the  times  of  their  manifestations,  are  present  together  in  God. 
There  is  no  time  in  God.  L. 

6  There  is  one  great  circle  of  emanations  down  to  man,  and  back  to  God,  and 
smaller  circles  caused  by  each  particular  emanation  having  a  course  of  its  own,  e.g., 
universal  reason  revolves  in  all  particular  reasons.  Each  link  is  potentially  all,  and 
hence  destruction  of  one  is  destruction  of  all.  L. 


GULSHAN   I   BAZ.  17 

If  you  take  one  atom  link  from  its  place 
The  entire  universe  falls  to  ruin. 

160     The  whole  in  a  dizzy  whirl,  and  yet  no  single  part 
Placing  foot  beyond  the  limit  of  contingency, 
Phenomenal  being1  holding  each  one  in  bondage, 
Each  is  in  despair  at  its  particularization  from  the  Whole. 
You  may  say  each  is  ever  travelling  and  yet  restrained, 
Each  is  ever  being  unclothed  and  clothed  upon  ;2 
Each  is  alway  in  motion,  yet  ever  at  rest, 
Never  beginning  and  never  ending. 

Each  ever  cognizant  of  his  own  essence,  and  for  that  cause 
Ever  pressing  his  way  towards  the  throne  on  high. 

165     Beneath  the  veil  of  each  atom  is  hidden 

The  heart-ravishing  beauty  of  the  Beloved's  face  ! 

KULE  I.' 

You  have  heard  thus  much  of  the  universe, 
Come,  say  what  you  have  seen  of  the  universe. 
What  know  you  of  form  or  of  substance  ? 
What  is  the  next  world,  and  what  is  this  world  ? 
Say  what  is  Simurg,  and  what  mount  Kaf,4 
What  heaven  and  hell,  and  hades'  what  ? 

1  Taayyun,  phenomenalization  or  emanation,  evidentiation.     See  note  on  couplet 
273  and  couplet  484. 

5  This  is  an  allusion  to  Koran,  Sura  L.  14  :    "  Yet  are  they  in  doubt  (or  being 
clothed  with,  labas),  a  new  creation."     Each  atom  non-existent  in  itself  is  being 
every  moment  clothed  with  a  fresh  phenomenal  efflux  from  Absolute  Being,  and 
again  stripped  of  it.     When  it  strips  off  the  phenomena]   it  is  united  with   the 
Absolute,  and  when  it  again  puts  it  on,  it  is  held  back  from  union  and  "  travaileth 
in  bondage."     L. 

3  These  rules  are  an  elaboration  of  the  thesis  that  knowledge  of  the  Truth  is  to  be 
attained  not  by  sense  and  reason  but  by  illumination.     L. 

4  Simurg,  a  fabulous  bird,  said  to  dwell  on  Mount  Kaf,  or  Caucasus, — the  type  of 
Supreme  Buing  and  plurality  in  Unity. 

6  AVaraf  or  Barzakh,  the  partition,  veil,  or  "  barrier  "  between  death  and  the 
resurrection,  or  between  this  world  and  the  next,  a  hades  or  purgatory,  in  which  the 
dead  are  examined  by  Munkir  and  Nakir. — Sale,  Koran,  Prelim.  Disc.  55,  and  Sura 
XXIII.  102. 


18  GULSHAN    I   RAZ. 

What  is  that  world  which  is  not  seen, 

One  day  whereof  equals  a  year  of  this  world  ? 

170     That  world,  in  fine,  is  not  what  you  see. 

Have  you  not  heard  the  text,  '  What  ye  see  not  ? ' ' 
Come,  show  me  what  is  Jabulca,2 
What  that  city  whose  name  is  Jabulsa. 
Consider  the  East  along  with  the  West, 
For  this  world  contains  no  more  than  one  of  each.3 
Come  and  hear  the  meaning  of  'like  unto  them;'* 
Hear  it  from  Ibn  Abbas,  and  then  know  yourself! 
You  are  asleep,  and  this  vision  of  yours  is  a  dream, 
All  that  you  see  thereby  is  an  illusion. 

175     On  the  morn  of  the  last  day,  when  you  shall  awake, 

You  will  know  all  this  to  be  the  baseless  fabric  of  fancy. 

When  the  illusion  of  seeing  double  is  removed, 

Earth  and  heavens  will  become  transfigured. 

When  the  true  Sun  displays  his  face  to  you 5 

There  remains  not  the  light  of  Venus,  moon  or  sun. 

Falls  one  beam  of  His  on  the  hard  rock, 

It  is  torn  to  pieces  like  wool  of  divers  colours.6 

Know  now  is  the  time  that  you  have  power  to  act : 

What  profit  is  there  in  knowing,  when  you  are  powerless  ? 7 


1  Koran,  Sura  LXIX.  38. 

2  Sale,  Prelim.  Disc.  83,  explains  these  as  the  celestial  and  terrestrial  Jerusalem, 
Lahiji  as  the  worlds  of  ideals,  and  of  disembodied  spirits.  He  says  one  of  them  lies  in 
the  east,  the  other  in  the  west.     See  Gal.  iv.  26,  and  Deutsch,  Islam,  p.  101. 

3  Sense  tells  us  nothing  of  the  unseen  worlds.     L. 

1  See  Slane's  Ibn  Khallikan,  i.  89,  note.    The  saying  referred  to  is, "  If  I  explained 
to  you  the  verse,  '  God  created  seven  heavens  and  earths  like  unto  them  '  ye  would 
stone  me,  or  call  me  unbeliever."     See  Koran,  Sura  LXV.  12. 
6  The  Father  of  lights.— James  i.  17. 

'  On  that  day  the  mountains  shall  become  like  carded  wool  of  divers  colours. ' — 
Koran,  Sura  CI.  4. 

'  Man  by  reason  of  the  universality  of  his  nature,  i.e.  his  comprehending  in  him 
self  all  the  divers  names  and  attributes  of  "  The  Truth,"  is  capable  of  apprehending 
Divine  Epiphanies,  and  attaining  to  knowledge  of  "  The  Truth,"  and  should  set  himself 
t  o  do  this  while  his  powers  are  in  their  prime.     L. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  19 

180     How  shall  I  tell  the  tale  of  '  states  '  of  heart1 

To  you,  0  man,  with  head  downcast  and.  feet  in  the  mire  ? 

The  world  is  yours  and  yet  you  remain  indigent. 

Has  man  ever  seen  one  so  pitiable  as  you  are  ? 

Like  captives  you  are  confined  to  one  spot, 

Binding  your  feet  with  your  own  helpless  hand. 

You  sit  like  women  in  the  street  of  ill  fortune, 

You  take  no  shame  to  yourself  for  your  ignorance. 

The  valiant  of  the  world  are  rolling  in  carnage ; 

You,  with  head  wrapped  up,  put  not  forth  your  foot. 
185     How  read  you  the  text,  "  old  woman's  creed," 

That  you  hold  ignorance  to  be  lawful  for  you  ? 

Whereas  "  women  are  wanting  in  intellect  and  faith,"2 

Why  should  men  choose  their  road  ? 

If  you  are  a  man,  come  forth  and  pass  on, 

Whatever  hinders  you,  pass  aside  by  it. 

Tarry  not  day  or  night  at  the  halting  places,3 

Linger  not  behind  your  fellow  travellers  and  camels. 

Like  '  The  Friend  of  God,'  go  seek  "  The  Truth,"4 

Turn  night  into  day  and  day  into  night.5 
190     Stars  with  moon  and  most  brilliant  sun 

Represent  sense,  imagination  and  brilliant  reason.6 

Turn  your  face  from  all  these,  0  pilgrim, 

Say  alway,  'I  love  not  them  tliat  set.' 

1  I.e.  ecstatic  states  in  which  Divine  Epiphanies  and  visions  are  displayed  to  the 
heart.     L. 

2  There  is  another  tradition,  "  an  old  woman's  creed  is  yours."      Lahiji  says  it  is 
mere   bondage,    taklid,  mechanical    religion,    cant.      Compare  1   Tim.  iv.  7,   '  old 
wives'  fables.' 

3  Compare  Hafiz,  Ode  I. 

*  "  And  when  the  night  overshadowed  him,  Abraham  saw  a  star  and  he  said,  '  This 
is  my  Lord  ;'  but  when  it  set,  he  said,  '  I  like  not  gods  which  set.'  And  when  he 
saw  the  moon  rising,  he  said, '  This  is  my  Lord ; '  but  when  he  saw  it  set,  he  said, 
'  Verily,  if  my  Lord  direct  me  not,  I  shall  become  one  of  them  that  go  astray.'  " — 
Koran,  Sura  VI.  77. 

'  Relax  not  your  efforts  at  any  season.     L. 

6  Hiss  i  mushtarak,  the  koine  aisthesis  of  Aristotle. 

D    2 


20  GULSHAN   I   KAZ. 

Like  Moses,  son  of  Amran,  press  onwards  in  this  road, 
Till  you  hear  the  words,  'Verily  I  am  God.'1 
So  long  as  the  mount  of  your  being  remains2  before  you, 
The  answer  to  '  Show  me  '  is  '  Thou  shalt  not  see  me.'3 
"  The  Truth,"  as  amber,  attracts  you  like  a  straw. 
If  there  were  no  mount  of  "  youness,"  where  were  the  road  ?4 
195     When  its  Lord  appears  in  glory  to  the  mount  of  existence, 
Existence  is  laid  low,  even  as  the  dust  of  the  road. 
The  beggar  becomes  by  one  attraction  a  king, 
In  one  instant  it  makes  the  mount  as  a  straw.5 
Follow  the  steps  of  the  prophet  in  his  ascension, 
Marvel  at  all  the  mighty  signs.6 
Come  forth  from  the  dwelling  of  Umhani/ 
Say  only,  "  Whoso  hath  seen  me  hath  seen  The  Truth."* 
Forsake  the  Kaf  of  the  corner  of  both  worlds, 
Sit  on  mount  Kaf  at  "  the  distance  of  two  lows'  lengths." 

1  Alluding  to  the  burning  bush  (Koran,  Sura  XXVIII.   31),  i.e.   till  you  are 
illumined  by  Divine  Epiphanies. 

2  The    mount,  i.e.   phenomenal   illusive   existence,   which    hides    real    absolute 
Being.     L. 

3  Alluding  to  the  giving  of  the  law  on  Mount  Sinai.     "  And  when  Moses  came 
at  the  appointed  time,  and  his  Lord  spake  unto  him,  he  said,  '  0  Lord,  show  me  thy 
self,  that  I  may  behold  thee.'     God  answered, '  Thou  shalt  in  no  wise  behold  me,  but 
look  towards  the  mountain,  and  if  it  stand  firm  in  its  place,  then  thou  shalt  see  me.' 
But  wben  his  Lord  appeared  with  glory  in  the  mount  He  reduced  it  to  dust,  and 
Moses  fell  on  his  face  in  a  swoon  and  was  beside  himself." — Koran,  Sura  VII.  139. 

*  Amber  is  called  Teak  raba,  attraetor  of  straws.  When  your  phenomenal 
existence,  your  '  youness,'  is  swept  away,  there  is  no  longer  any  interval  between 
you  and  God.  L.  There  is  here  a  play  on  the  word  "  tui,"  which  means  "  firm  " 
as  well  as  "  youness." 

6  The  attraction  of  Divine  graces  enriches  the  fakir  or  beggar  (i.  e.  the  man  who 
is  '  poor   in   spirit '   and   stripped   of  self),  with  the   wealth   of  union   with   the 
Absolute.     L. 

'  I.  e.  Divine  Epiphanies.     L. 

7  The  daughter  of  Abu  Talib,  from  whose  house  the  prophet  started    on  his 
ascension  to  heaven. 

8  This  saying  is  ascribed  to  Muhammad  in  the  Ma&sad-i-Aksa. — Palmer,    97. 
Cf.  John  xiv.  9. 

0  "  Afterwards  he  (Muhammad)  approached  near  until  he  was  at  the  distance  of 


GDLSHAN    I   EAZ.  21 

200     "  The  Truth"  \vill  then  grant  you  whatsoever  you  ask, 
And  show  you  all  things  as  they  really  are.1 

RULE    II. 

To  him,  whose  soul  attains  the  beatific  vision,2 
The  universe  is  the  book  of  "  The  Truth  Most  High." 
Accidents  are  its  vowels,  and  substance  its  consonants, 
And  grades  of  creatures  its  verses  and  pauses. 
Therein  every  world  is  a  special  chapter, 
One  the  chapter  Fatihah,  another  Ikhlas. 
Of  this  book  the  first  verse  is  '  Universal  Reason,3 
For  that  is  like  the  B  of  Bismillah ; 

205     Second  comes  "  Universal  Soul,"  'the  verse  of  light,'4 
For  that  is  as  a  lamp  of  exceeding  light ; 
The  third  verse  thereof  is  "  Highest  heaven."  5 

two  bows'  length  from  Him  in  heaven." — Koran,  Sura  LIU.  9.     Mount  Kaf  was 
the  abode  of  the  Simurg,  the  type  of  Absolute  Being. 

1  Alluding  to  the  Hadis,  '  Inspiration  is  a  light  that  descends  into  the  heart  and 
shows  the  nature  of  things  as  they  really  are.'  The  illumined  Sufi  sees  '  things  as  they 
are'  when  after  annihilation  of  self,  fana,  he  endures  and  abides  (baka)  in  God.  L. 

'  The  author  here  describes  the  successive  "  emanations  "  of  Divinity  under  the 
figure  of  the  successive  chapters  of  the  Koran.  The  Alexandrian  doctrine  of 
"  emanations  " — intermediate  potencies  or  intelligences  by  whom  God  acts  on  the 
world  of  phenomena — "  links  between  the  Divine  spirit  and  the  world  of  matter,"- 
sL'c-ms  to  have  sprung  from  an  amalgamation  of  the  ancient  Persian  angelology — the 
Amshaspands,  Izads,  and  Fravdshis, — with  Greek  Ontology,  the  "  ideas  "  of  Plato, 
the  logos  of  Philo,  the  nous  of  Plotinus.  (See  Deutsch.  Remains,  p.  50,  and 
Mansel,  Gnostic  Heresies,  p.  26).  This  doctrine  pervades  the  entire  Neoplatonist 
philosophy,  and  the  writings  of  the  Gnostics,  (see  Ueberweg,  Greek  Philosophy,  I. 
224),  and  re-appears  in  the  systems  of  the  Muhammadan  philosophers  Al  Farabi,  950 
A.D.,  Avenpace,  circ.  1118  A.D.,  and  Averroes,  circ.  1150  A.D.  (Ueberweg,  I. 
pp.  412 — 417),  and  in  the  Jewish  Kabbala. 

*  Universal  lleason  ('akl-i-JcuU)  and  Universal  Soul  (nufs  or  jan-i-kull)  are  transla- 
tions of  the  Neoplatonic  loyos  and  pneuma.  See  ' Aiun-ul-masdil  by  Abu  Nasr  Al 
Farabi,  and  the  remarks  of  Schmolders  (Documenta  Philosophise  Arabum,  p.  96). 
The  ' Aiun-ul-masdil  is  a  summary  of  Aristotelian  metaphysics  as  interpreted  by  the 
Alexandrian  Neoplatonist  commentators. 

'  Koran,  Sura  XXIV.  36,  '  a  light  from  the  oil  of  a  blessed  tree.' 

5  Koran,  Sura  VII.  55,  'arsh,  or  heaven  of  heavens. 


22  GULSHAN    I   RAZ. 

Read  the  fourth  verse,  it  is  "  The  throne  ;"J 
After  that  are  the  seven  heavenly  spheres, 
The  "  chapter  of  the  seven  limbs  "  answers  to  these.2 
After  these,  behold  the  bodies  of  the  four  elements, 
Whereof  each  answers  to  its  respective  verse. 
After  these  come  the  three  kingdoms  of  nature, 
Whose  verses  you  cannot  count. 
210     The  last  that  came  down  was  the  soul  of  man,3 

And  thus  the  Koran  ends  with  the  chapter  "  Men." 

RULE  III. 

THOUGHTS    ON    THE   HEAVENS. 

Rest  not  in  bondage  in  the  prison  of  nature, 
Come  forth  and  behold  the  divine  handiwork. 
Consider  the  structure  of  the  heavens, 
So  that  you  may  praise  "  The  Truth  "  for  His  signs.4 
Look  up  and  see  how  the  vault  of  "  highest  heaven  " 5 
Is  stretched  round  about  both  worlds. 
Wherefore  do  they  name  it  "  throne  of  the  Merciful  ?  " 
What  connection  has  it  with  the  heart  of  man  ?  6 
215     Wherefore  are  these  two  continually  in  motion, 
Never  for  a  moment  taking  rest  ? 
Peradventure  the  heart  is  the  centre  of  that  heaven, 
Heart  the  central  point  and  heaven  the  circumference.7 

1  Koran,  Sura  II.  256,  the  eighth  heaven. 

8  Sura  I.,  which  contains  seven  divisions,  or  the  seven  chapters  from  Sakrat  to 
Taubat.  Seven  heavens  are  mentioned  in  the  Talmud,  and  the '  third  heaven '  is 
mentioned  in  2  Corinthians  xii.  2.  Compare  Sura  II.  27 :  "Into  seven  heavens 
did  He  fashion  it." 

'  Nazil,  '  coming  down,'  is  the  term  for  the  revelation  of  a  verse  in  the  Koran. 

4  Or,  '  in  verses  of  the  Koran.'     L. 

6  I.  e.,  'arsh,  the  ninth  heaven. 

0  Alluding  to  the  Hadis :  "  The  heart  of  the  believer  is  the  highest  heaven."  The 
'arsh  and  the  heart  of  man  are  both  theatres  of  Divine  perfections,  and  the  'arsh,  as 
the  less  perfect,  may  be  subsidiary  to  the  heart,  the  more  perfect  theatre.  L.  See 
couplet  652. 

7  See  couplet  796. 


GDLSHAN    I    RAZ.  23 

In  the  space  of  one  day  and  night,  more  or  less, 
Highest  heaven  surpasses  your  circuits,  0  Durvesh  ! ' 
Moved  by  this  the  other  heavenly  spheres  are  circling  : 
Mark  well  how  they  all  move  in  one  direction. 
From  east  to  west,  like  a  water-wheel, 
They  are  ever  hastening,  without  food  or  sleep. 

220     Each  day  and  night  this  highest  sphere 

Makes  a  complete  revolution  round  the  world. 

Moved  by  this,  the  other  heavenly  spheres 

Are  revolving  in  circular  orbits  in  like  manner, 

But  contrary  to  the  rotation  of  the  crystalline  sphere,2 

These  eight  lower  spheres  revolve  crookedly.3 

The  Ecliptic  holds  the  signs  of  the  zodiac,4 

In  them  is  no  interval  nor  any  interstice. 

Aries  and  Taurus,  and  Gemini  and  Cancer, 

Are  hung  upon  it  with  Leo  and  Virgo.5 

225     Then  Libra  and  Scorpio,  then  Sagittarius, 

Capricorn,  and  Aquarius,  and  then  the  sign  Pisces, 
The  fixed  stars  are  one  thousand  twenty  and  four, 
Who  have  their  stations  round  about  the  "  throne."  6 


1  Alluding  to  the  taw'af,  or  perambulations  of  shrines  made  by  Durvveshes.     L. 

1  According  to  the  Ptolemaic  scheme  the  seven  planets  with  their  respective 
spheres,  "  cycle  and  epicycle,  orb  on  orb,"  constitute  the  solar  system.  Beyond 
this  is  the  eighth  sphere,  that  of  the  fixed  stars,  and  beyond  that  the  crystalline,  or 
ninth  sphere,  to  which  was  attributed  a  certain  '  trepidation '  to  account  for  the 
irregularities  observed  in  the  motion  of  the  fixed  stars.  Beyond  this  was  iheprimum 
mobile,  the  sphere  which  was  at  once  first  moved  and  the  first  mover,  communicating 
its  motion  to  the  lower  spheres  revolving  within  it.  Beyond  the  primum  mobile 
was  the  empyrean.  Ptolemy's  Syntaxis  Magna  was  translated  into  Arabic  by 
Ishak  bin  Hossain,  under  the  title  Al  Mfgiste,  about  800  A.D.  Apparently  Lahiji 
takes  the  crystalline  sphere,  charkh  i  atlas,  to  be  the  same  as  the  charkh  i  'azam,  or 
highest  sphere. 

3  Literally,  '  bent  as  a  bow.'     The  eighth  sphere  and  those  beneath  it  move  with 
two  motions,  one  east  to  west  like  the  highest  sphere,  and  secondly  west  to  east.    L. 

4  The  Ecliptic  is  also  called  the  '  girdle  '  of  the  '  throne,'  or  eighth  sphere.     L. 

'  Virgo,  Khusliali,  which  also  means  a  bunch  of  grapes,  and  is  therefore  said  to  be 
hung  up.     L. 

0  The  eighth  heaven. 


24  GULSHAN    I    EAZ. 

Of  the  seventh  heaven  Saturn  is  the  watchman, 

The  sixth  is  the  mansion  and  house  of  Jupiter, 

The  fifth  heaven  is  the  house  of  Mars, 

The  fourth  of  the  Sun,  adorner  of  the  earth, 

The  third  of  Venus,  the  second  of  Mercury  : 

The  Moon  holds  its  orbit  on  the  sphere  of  the  Earth. 

230     The  house  of  Saturn  is  in  Capricorn  and  Aquarius, 
Jupiter  waxes  and  wanes  in  Sagittarius  and  Pisces.1 
In  Aries  and  Scorpio  is  found  the  place  of  Mars, 
In  Leo  is  the  Sun's  place  of  rest ; 
Like  as  Venus  makes  her  house  in  Taurus  and  Libra, 
So  does  Mercury  abide  in  Gemini  and  Virgo. 
The  Moon  sees  in  Cancer  a  creature  akin  to  herself, 
When  head  becomes  tail  she  assumes  the  form  of  a  knot/ 
The  Moon  passes  through  eight  and  twenty  mansions,3 
And  then  she  returns  opposite  to  the  Sun.4 

235     Then  she  becomes  like  to  a  crooked  palm-branch,6 
By  command  of  the  Almighty  who  is  Allwise. 
If  you  think  on  this,  as  a  perfect  man, 
Assuredly  you  will  say,  '  All  this  is  not  vain.' 6 
The  words  of  "The  Truth"  are  clear  on  this  point,7 
That  to  call  this  vain  is  weakness  of  faith. 


1  The  "  houses  "  of  the  planets  are  those  signs  of  the  zodiac  in  which  they  attain 
their  maximum  ascension.  L. 

"  The  points  where  the  moon's  orbit  cuts  the  ecliptic  are  called  '  knots,'  and  the 
portions  of  her  orbit  north  and  south  of  the  ecliptic  are  called  respectively  the 
"  head  "  and  "  tail  of  the  dragon."  L. 

'  "  And  for  the  moon  have  we  appointed  certain  mansions,  until  she  change  and 
return  to  be  like  the  old  branch  of  a  palm  tree." — Koran,  Sura  XXXVI.  28. 
These  anwa,  or  mansions,  are  the  divisions  of  the  zodiac,  through  one  of  which  the 
moon  passes  each  night. 

*  I.  e.  becomes  full.     L. 

5  /.  e.  in  her  last  quarter.     L. 

6  "  The  course  of  nature  is  the  art  of  God."— Young,  Night  Thoughts,  IX.  1267. 

7  Batil,  '  Vain,  what  is  without  God.' — Istilahat  us  Sttftat,  p.  14.    Koran,  Sura  III. 
138  :  "  Think  on  the  creation  of  the  heavens  and  the  earth.     Have  we  created  them 
in  vain  ?  " 


GULSHAN    I   RAZ.  25 

0  fool,  the  body  of  a  gnat  enshrines  wisdom,1 
Then  how  is  there  no  wisdom  in  Mercury  and  Mars  ? 
Albeit  if  you  look  into  the  roots  of  this  matter, 
You  see  the  heavens  subject  to  the  Almighty.2 
240     When  the  astrologer  is  destitute  of  religion,  and  says 

That  starry  influences  proceed  from  the  heavenly  motions,3 

He  sees  not  that  these  revolving  heavens 

Are  all  under  the  sway  and  dominion  of  "  The  Truth." 

ILLUSTRATION. 

You  may  say  these  heavens  are  revolving 

In  the  rotation  of  day  and  night  like  a  potter's  wheel. 

And  thereby  every  moment  the  wisdom  of  the  Master 

Fashions  a  new  vessel  out  of  water  and  clay. 

Whatever  exists  in  time  and  in  space 

Proceeds  from  one  master  hand,  one  workshop. 
245     The  stars,  who  are  of  the  people  of  perfection,4 

Wherefore  are  they  always  undergoing  the  defect  of  setting  ? 

Why  are  they  continually  varying  in  position, 

In  place  and  orbit,  in  colour  and  size  ? 

Why  are  they  now  in  Nadir,  now  in  Zenith  ? 

Sometimes  in  opposition,  sometimes  in  conjunction  ? 

Wherefore  again  is  the  heart  of  heaven  fretted  with  fire  ? 

What  does  it  desire  that  it  is  always  in  a  whirl  ? 

All  the  planets  circling  round  in  search  of  this, 

Sometimes  above,  sometimes  beneath  the  earth  ? 
250     The  elements  water,  air,  fire  and  earth 

Have  taken  their  station  below  the  heavens ; 

1  See  Koran,  Sura  II.  24. 

*  On  the  one  hand  it  is  wrong  to  deny  the  wisdom  manifested  in  the  structure  of 
the  heavens,  and  on  the  other  hand  it  is  equally  wrong  to  say  with  the  astrologer 
that  they  are  self  moved,  and  govern  things  on  earth.  L. 

1  Compare  "  The  sweet  influences  of  the  Pleiades."    Job  xxxviii.  31. 

1  This  idea  is  found  in  Aristotle.  Nicom.  Eth.  vi.  7.  4.  The  perfection  of  a  star 
is  its  ascension,  and  its  defect  its  setting.  L. 

E 


26  GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 

Each  serving  diligently  in  its  own  appointed  place, 
Before  or  behind  which  it  never  sets  its  foot. 
Though  all  four  are  contrary  in  their  nature  and  position, 
Still  one  may  see  them  ever  united  together.1 
Inimical  are  they  to  each  other  in  essence  and  form 
Yet  united  into  single  bodies  by  fiat  of  necessity.2 
From  them  is  born  the  three-fold  kingdom  of  Nature, 
Minerals,  then  plants,  then  animals, 
255     Setting  up  substance  in  their  midst,3 
As  Sufis  becoming  pure  from  form.4 
All  at  the  command  and  by  favour  of  the  Master, 
Standing  in  their  places  subject  to  His  will, 
The  minerals  by  His  wrath  laid  low  in  the  dust, 
The  plants  by  His  favour  standing  erect, 
The  sexual  passion  of  animals  with  ardour  unfeigned 
Preserving  their  genera,  species,  and  individuals, 
All  confessing  the  rule  of  their  Master, 
Searching  out  His  will  day  and  night ! 

RULE  IV. 

THOUGHTS   ON   SOULS. 

260     Ponder  well  once  for  all  on  your  own  origin, 

Your  first  mother  had  a  father  who  was  also  her  mother.5 
Behold  the  world  entirely  comprised  in  yourself, 

1  I.e.,  in  compound  bodies.  All  these  are  proofs  of  the  entire  subjection  of  all 
things  to  one  primal  agent,  "  The  Truth."  L. 

3  Compare  Burke :  "  From  the  reciprocal  struggle  of  discordant  powers  is  drawn 
out  the  harmony  of  the  universe." 

3  Haiuli,  substance,  is  the  Greek  He  Hyle,— explained  in  Istilahat  us  Sufiat, 
p.  25,  as  the  inward  element  in  things  as  opposed  to  the  outward  form, — the  hypokei- 
menon,  '  that  which  underlies,'  quod  sulstat. 

*  When  the  simple  elements  are  united  into  compounds,  each  element  drops  its 
own  '  form,'  and  is  blended  with  the  others  into  one  common  substance.  L. 

'  Universal  Eeason,  the  first  emanation  from  the  Absolute,  is  likened  to  Adam ; 
and  Universal  Soul,  the  second  emanation,  to  Eve,  since  Universal  Soul  was  evolved 
_out  of  Universal  lieason,  like  Eve  out  of  Adam's  rib.  L. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  27 

That  which  was  made  last  was  first  in  thought.1 

The  last  that  was  made  was  the  soul  of  Adam, 

The  two  worlds  were  a  means  to  his  production. 

There  is  no  other  final  cause  beyond  man, 

It  is  disclosed  in  man's  own  self.2 

The  black  hearted  and  the  fool  are  the  opposites  of  light 

Yet  are  they  the  theatres  of  the  true  epiphany.3 

265     When  the  back  of  a  mirror  is  blackened, 
It  will  reflect  a  man's  face  from  its  face  ; 4 
And  the  rays  of  the  sun  in  the  fourth  heaven 
Are  not  reflected  till  they  fall  on  the  dust  of  earth. 
You  are  the  reflection  of  "  The  Adored  of  angels," 
For  this  cause  are  you  worshipped  of  angels.5 
Each  creature  that  goes  before  you  has  a  soul, 
And  from  that  soul  is  bound  a  cord  to  you.6 
Therefore  are  they  all  subject  to  your  dominion, 
For  that  the  soul  of  each  one  is  hidden  in  you, 

270     You  are  the  kernel  of  the  world  in  the  midst  thereof, 
Know  yourself  that  you  are  the  world's  soul. 

1  Universal  Reason  is  also  the  '  very  essence  of  man,'  so  that  what  was  first  in 
the  Divine   thought,   was   the  last  in  fact.      Man   was  thus   the   final   cause  of 
creation.     L. 

2  All  things  were  created  as  subsidiary  to  man,  but  man  is  an  end  in  himself,  and 
not  a  means  to  any  further  end.     L. 

3  This  refers  to  Koran,  Sura  XXXIII.  72  :  '  Verily,  we  proposed  a  deposit  to  the 
heavens,  and  to  the  earth,  and  to  the  mountains  between  them,  but  they  refused  the 
burden,  and  we  entrusted  it  to  man,  who  is  unjust  (or  '  dark  ')  and  foolish.'     This 
deposit  is  the  duty  of  displaying  the  Divine  attributes,  and  man  does  this  through 
the  universality  of  his  nature,  containing  "  the  fullness  of  the  Godhead."     He  is 
good  on  one  side  and  evil  on  the  other, — "  created  half  to  rise  and  half  to  fall." 
The  good  represents  the  beautiful  attributes  of  God  (jamal),  and  the  evil  the  terrible 
attributes  (jalal).     L. 

4  Man,  the  mirror  of  Divinity,  is  on  one  side  blackened  with  the  darkness  of  Not 
Being,  in  order  to  reflect  Very  Being.     L. 

6  "  And  He  said  unto  the  angels,  '  Worship  Adam,'  and  they  all  worshipped  him 
except  Iblis." — Koran,  Sura  II.  32. 

8  The  '  essence  of  man,'  or  Universal  Reason,  is  the  soul  which  animates  all  things, 
and  forms  the  bond  of  mystical  union  between  them  and  man.     L. 

E    2 


28  GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 

The  north  quarter  of  the  world  is  your  dwelling  place,1 

Because  the  heart  is  on  the  left  side  of  the  body. 

The  world  of  reason  and  mind  is  your  stock  in  trade, 

Earth  and  heavens  are  your  vesture. 

Behold  this  Not  being  which  is  the  evidence  2  of  Being, 

See  this  height  how  it  is  the  essence  of  depth.8 

Your  natural  powers  are  ten  thousand,4 

Your  volitions  transcend  limits  and  counting. 
275     For  that  cause  is  each  man5  furnished  with  instruments, 

With  limbs,  members,  and  sinews. 

Physicians  become  bewildered  at  these, 

And  stand  amazed  at  the  anatomy  of  man. 

Not  one  has  mastered  this  science, 

Who  does  not  avow  his  ignorance  thereof. 

His  limit  and  portion  are  appointed  to  each  by  "  The  Truth," 

Each  arises  from  and  returns  to  one  Name.6 

In  that  name  each  creature  has  its  being, 

To  that  name  it  is  ever  giving  praise  ; 
280     At  its  beginning  each  proceeds  from  that  source, 

At  its  return  that  is  its  door  of  departure. 

By  the  door  whereat  each  enters,  it  departs, 

Though  in  its  lifetime  each  wanders  from  door  to  door.7 

1  Sliamali,  north,  also  means  left. 

a  'Ayn,  eye,  appearance,  essence,  reality.  The"  quality"  of  a  proposition. — Schmolders 
(Documents  Philosophise  Arabum),  p.  130.  'Ayan  i  salita,  the  established  evidence's 
or  epiphanies  of  the  Divine  "ideas,"  manifested  in  the  phenomenal  world;  opposed  to 
'at/an  i  'iJmiya,  the  same  "  ideas  "  concealed  in  the  '  intellectual  presence'  of  God.  '  Uni- 
versal reason '  is  said  to  he  in  the  Divine  'Urn  (knowledge),  and  man  to  be  the  same 
'  essence  of  man'  manifested  in  'ayn  (to  outward  view).  Lahiji  uses  the  expression, 
"  the  worlds  of  'ilm  and  'ayn."  A  name  is  called  the  'ayn  of  the  thing  named.  See 
Dabistan  (Calcutta  edition),  p.  456. 

3  '  Universal  Reason,'  the  first  emanation,  is  also  the  "  essence  of  man,"  the  lowest 
emanation.     L. 

4  Natural,  i.e.  involuntary,  such  as  digestion,  growth,  &c.     L. 
6  Or  "  each  power."     L. 

*  Each  creature  or  each  power  reflects  some  one  of  the  Divine  names  or  attributes. 
From  this  name  each  is  first  manifested  and  to  this  it  returns.  L. 

'  JtlulJa,  beginning  or  origin,  is   said  to  be  the  stage  of  wajud  i  'ilmiat ;  ma'ash, 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  29 

Hence  you  learn  all  the  names  of  God, 
For  that  you  are  an  image  reflected  from  "  The  Named."  ' 
Power  and  Knowledge  and  Will  are  shown  forth 
In  you,  0  slave  of  the  Lord  of  bliss  ! 
You  are  the  Hearing,  Seeing,  Living,  Speaking, 
Yet  you  endure  not  of  yourself  but  of  Him  ! 
285     0  first  who  are  also  the  essence  of  the  last ! 

0  inner  who  are  also  the  essence  of  the  outward  !  * 
You  day  and  night  are  cogitating  about  yourself, 
It  is  most  meet  that  you  should  think  on  self  no  more,3 
Since  the  end  of  thought  is  bewilderment,4 
This  discourse  on  thought  ends  at  this  point. 


QUESTION  ITI. 

What  am  I  ?  tell  me  what  "  I "  means  ? 

What  is  the  meaning  of  "  Travel  into  yourself  ?"  5 

ANSWER  III. 

Again  you  question  me,  saying,  "  What  am  I  ?  " 
Give  me  news  of  myself  as  to  what  "  I  "  means. 
290     When  Absolute  Being  has  to  be  indicated 

lifetime  or  sustenance,  that  of  icajud  i  'ayni,  i.  e.  the  Divine  ideas  evolved  to  view. 
Mu'ad,  return,  is  the  retrocession  of  the  creature  back  to  wajud  i  'ilmiat.  Each 
creature  wanders  about  during  its  manifestation  in  forgetfulness  of  its  origin.  L. 

1  I.  e  ,  God.  The  names  which  follow  are  those  of  the  seven  essential  Divine 
attributes.  The  argument  is  that  since  each  creature  is  the  manifestation  of  some 
one  Name  of  God,  and  you  are  the  epitome  of  all  creatures,  therefore  you  see  in  your- 
self reflections  of  all  the  names  of  God.  L. 

*  Koran,  Sura  LVII.  3. 

*  By  no  process  of  logic  or  thought  can  you  escape  from  egoism  and  tuism,  and 
attain  to  true  knowledge,  so  it  is  better  for  you  to  renounce  the  attempt  to  reach 
knowledge  by  thought.     L. 

*  When  the  thinker  and  the  object  of  his  thought  become  united,  thinking  is  no 
longer  possible,  for  thinking  implies  duality.     The  end  of  thought  is  (when  union 
takes  place)   bewilderment, — dazzling  of  the  mental  eye,  owing  to  its  proximity  to 
"  The  Truth."     L. 

6  Alluding  to  the  Hadia — '  Whoso  knows  himself  knows  his  Lord.'  Introrsum  ascen 
dere  has  been  the  watchword  of  mystics  in  all  ages. 


30  GULSHAN    I   EAZ. 

Men  use  the  word  "  I  "  to  express  it. 
When  "  The  Truth  "  is  set  in  evidence  in  a  phenomenon 
You  express  it  by  the  word  "  I,"  l 
"I"  and  "  you  "  are  the  accidents 2  of  Very  Being. 
The  lattices  of  the  niches  of  the  lamp  of  Necessary  Being.3 
Know  bodies  and  spirits  are  all  the  One  Light, 
Now  shining  from  mirrors-,  now  from  torches. 
You  say  "  The  word  '  I '  in  every  connection  " 
"  Indicates  the  reasonable  soul  of  man  ;" 
295     But  as  you  have  made  human  intellect  your  guide, 
You  do  not  know  your  '  self '  from  one  of  your  parts, 
Go,  0  master,  and  know  well  your  '  self,' 
For  fatness  does  not  resemble  an  empty  tumour.4 
"  I "  and  "  you  "  are  higher  than  body  and  soul, 
For  both  body  and  soul  are  parts  of  "  me." 
The  word  "  I  "  is  not  limited  to  man, 
So  that  you  should  say  it  means  only  the  soul.5 

Straightway  lift  yourself  above  time  and  space,6 
Quit  the  world  and  be  yourself  a  world  for  yourself.7 

1  Absolute  Being  in  regard  of  its  remoteness  from  relations  and  attributes  is  not 
indicated  in  any  phenomenon,  but  in  regard  of  its  accidental  connexion  with  the 
visible  universe  it  is  indicated  by  the  phenomenon  '  man's  self,'  '  I '  and  '  you.'     L. 

2  'Ariz,  a  logical  accident. — Risalali  Shamsiyah  (translated  by  Sprenger),  page  7. 
The  one  Light  shines  with  many  rays  through  the  lattices  of  various  personalities.  L. 

3  Alluding  to  Koran,  Sura  XXIV.  35  :  '  Allah  is  the  light  of  the  heavens  and  the 
earth,  and  the  likeness  of  His  light  is  as  a  lamp,  wherein  is  a  torch,  and  the  torch 
in  a  glass,  and  the  glass  shining  as  a  star  with  the  oil  of  a  blessed  tree."     Bodies 
are  likened  to  mirrors,  and  spirits  to  torches. 

4  Fatness,  i.  e.  the  real  knowledge  gained  by  illumination,  is  not  like  the  empty 
puffed  up  conceit  of  intellect.    L. 

6  '  I '  and  '  You '  are  the  theatres  of  Absolute  Being  in  its  entirety,  whereas  body 
and  soul  are  exponents  of  single  Divine  attributes  only.     L. 

6  This  is  a  very  favourite  precept  of  mystical  philosophers  and  theologians.  Seethe 
passages  from  St.  Augustine,  Tauler,  Swedenborg,  Silesius,  Schelling,  and  Schleier- 
macher,  quoted  in  Hansel's  Bampton  Lectures,  p.  250.     It  amounts  to  this,  that  to 
know  the  infinite  man  must  himself  be  infinite  (il.,  p.  58). 

7  Here  begins  the  answer  to  the  second  clause  of  the  question.     It  is  to  become 
annihilated  (fani)  in  your  '  self,'  and  enduring  (baJci)  in  God.     L. 


GULSHAN   I   RAZ.  31 

300  By  the  imaginary  line  of  the  H  of  the  "  He  "  l 
Are  produced  two  eyes  at  the  time  He  looks  forth.1 
But  there  remain  not  in  the  midst  pilgrim  or  road, 
When  this  H  of  the  "  He  "  is  joined  to  the  H  in  Allah. 
Necessary  Being  is  as  Heaven  and  Hell  as  contingent, 
"  I  "  and  "  you  "  are  the  Hades  veil  between  them.3 
When  this  veil  is  lifted  up  from  before  you,4 
There  remains  not  the  bond  of  sects  and  creeds. 
All  the  authority  of  the  law  is  over  this  "  I  "  of  yours, 
Since  that  is  bound  to  your  soul  and  body.5 

305  When  "  I  "  and  "you  "  remain  not  in  the  midst, 

What  is  mosque,  what  is  synagogue,  what  is  fire  temple  ? 

Phenomenal  being  is  as  the  dot  on  'aijn, 

When  'ayn  is  clear,  gliayn  becomes  'ayn.* 

The  journey  of  the  pilgrim  is  two  steps  and  no  more, 

Although  it  is  beset  by  divers  perils. 

One  step  is  the  passing  out  from  that  H  of  "  He,"  ' 

1  Suiciyat, '  Ipseity.'  (Sprenger,  Hisalah  ShamsiyaTi,  p.  7.)  Ha,,  He=God;  Yahu  = 
Jehovah  (Shea's  Dabistan,  III.  222,  note). 

*  Alluding  to  the  form  of  the  round  If,     The  "looking"  is  explained  by  the 
passage    from   Jami   quoted    in    the  note  to  couplet   134.     The  H  of  Huiciyat 
(Divine    Ipseity)    is   the   phenomenon    manifesting    absolute    Being    in    the  visible 
universe.     Thus  we   have  duality  '  I '  and  '  He,'  but  this  duality  is  only  imaginary, 
and  vanishes  as  soon  as  '  I '  and    '  He  '  are  united  by   mystical  union    in  Allah. 
Compare  couplet  142.     L. 

*  '  I '  is   the  phenomenon   displaying   Absolute  Being  in  its  entirety, — its  jamal, 
or  beauty,  as  well  as  its  jalal,  or  terror  and  evil.     Hence  it  is  as  a  veil  or  wall  of 
partition   between    Heaven,   the   analogue   of  necessary  and   good  being,  and  Hell 
contingent  and  evil  being.    L. 

4  The  Sufis  call  whatever  opposes  perfect  union  with  the  Divinity  a  "  veil."  See 
a  saying  of  Junaid  quoted  in  his  life  in  Naf/iat  ul  ung,  p.  92. 

*  It  is  only  in  consequence  of  man's  phenomenal  extrusion  from  Divinity,  and  his 
individual  personality  embracing  evil  as  well  as  good  tendencies,  that  the  law  is 
needed  to  restrain  him.     L. 

0  Phenomenal  being  is  compared  to  the  diacritical  point  on  the  letter  'ayn  (eye  or 
essence),  which  converts  it  into  the  letter  ghayn  (cloud  or  darkness).  When  'ayn  is 
freed  from  this  dot,  gliayn,  the  cloud  of  phenomenal  being,  is  sublimated  into  'ayn, 
Divine  Essence.  L. 

7  /.  e.    (1)    passing   by  self-annihilation    (fana)    back   to   Absolute  Being    from 


32  GULSHAN    I    EAZ. 

The  second  is  passing  over  the  field  of  existence. 
In  this  holy  vision  plurality  and  individuals  are  one,1 
Like  one  which  pervades  all  numbers. 
310     You  are  that  plurality  which  becomes  very  Unity 2 
You  are  that  Unity  which  becomes  very  plurality. 
A  man  may  know  this  mystery  when  he  passes  forth 
From  the  part,  and  travels  up  to  the  whole. 


QUESTION  IV. 

Of  what  sort  is  this  traveller,  who  is  this  wayfarer  ? 
Of  whom  shall  I  say  that  he  is  the  perfect  man  ? 

ANSWER  IV. 

Again  you  ask  '  Who  is  the  traveller  on  the  road  ?  ' 
It  is  he  who  is  acquainted  with  his  own  origin. 
He  is  a  traveller  who  passes  on  with  haste, 
And  becomes  pure  from  self  as  fire  from  smoke. 
315     Know  his  journey  is  a  progress  of  revelation  from  the  contingent 
To  the  necessary,  leading  away  from  darkness  and  defect.1 
He  travels  back  his  first  journey,  stage  after  stage, 
Till  he  attains  the  grade  of  the  perfect  man.4 

phenomenal  being,  and  (2)  enduring  (baka)  in  mystical  union  with  Absolute  Being, 
and  with  Him  being  in  turn  manifested  in  plurality. 

"They  say  the  road  is  two  steps,  severing  and  uniting; 
You  are  united  to  the  '  Friend,'  when  severed  from  self."      L. 

1  /.  e.,  In  the  vision  of  the  illumined  and  perfected  Sufi.     L. 

2  In  virtue  of  man's  'journey  to  God  '  he  is  plurality  in  Unity,  and  in  virtue  of  his 
'journey  with  God  from  God  '  he  is  carried  down  again  into  plurality.     L. 

8  Nuksan,  '  deficiency,'  '  nothingness.'  In  the  Aklilaki  Nasiri  (Preface),  practice 
is  defined  as  "exertion  in  action  and  endeavour  in  conduct  to  the  utmost  of 
human  ability,  with  the  object  of  developing  what  lies  within  the  compass  of 
potentiality,  up  to  the  stage  of  actuality,  provided  that  it  leads  from  defect  (nuksan)  to 
perfection."  See  'Ayun  ul  Masail,  by  Abu  Nasir  Al-Farabi,  §  4.  Schmolders,  Docu- 
menta,  p.  45. 

4  In  the  last  answer  Mahmud  spoke  of  '  the  journey  up  to  God,'  and  that  '  down 
from  God  with  God.'  Here  he  mentions  another  journey  or  descent,  anterior  to  the 
other  two,  viz.  that  of  man's  first  extrusion  from  Unity  into  phenomenal  plurality. 


GULSHAN   I    RAZ.  33 

KULE    I.1 

Know  first  how  the  perfect  man  is  produced 
From  the  time  he  is  first  engendered. 
He  is  produced  at  first  as  inanimate  matter, 
Next  by  the  added  spirit  he  is  made  sentient,2 
And  acquires  the  motive  powers  from  the  Almighty. 
Next  he  is  made  lord  of  will  by  "  The  Truth." 

320     In  childhood  opens  out  perception  of  the  world, 
And  the  temptations  of  the  world  act  upon  him.3 
When  all  the  particular  parts  are  ordered  in  him 
He  makes  his  way  from  these  sources  to  general  notions.4 
Anger  is  born  in  him,  and  lust  of  the  flesh, 
And  from  these  spring  avarice,  gluttony,  pride. 
Evil  dispositions  come  into  operation. 
He  becomes  worse  than  an  animal,  a  demon,  a  brute. 
In  his  descent  this  point  is  the  very  lowest, 
For  it  is  the  point  directly  opposite  to  Unity. 

325     Of  actions  there  arises  an  endless  plurality, 
He  is  thus  directly  opposed  to  his  beginning. 
If  he  remains  imprisoned  in  this  snare, 
He  goes  astray  worse  than  the  beasts.5 

1  This  rule,  after  shortly  sketching  man's  '  descent '  into  the  world  of  phenomena, 
describes  his  upward  'journey  to  God' — from  the  lowest  point  in  the  circle  of  being, 
up  again  to  the  highest  point. 

2  '  Added  spirit.'      Lahiji  doubts  whether  this  means  the  animal  soul  or  vital 
principle,  or  the  human  soul.     This  doctrine  of  the  three  ascending  grades  of  the 
soul,  vegetive,  animal  and  human,  was  first  enunciated  by  Aristotle,  and  is  repro- 
duced in  the  'Ayun  ul  Masail  and  other  works.     So  Dryden  (Palamon  and  Arcite, 
III.  sub  Jin.),  says  that  man  is 

"  First  vegetive,  then  feels,  and  reasons  last, 
Rich  of  three  souls,  and  lives  all  three  to  waste." 

3  Here  is  another  reproduction  of  the  Aristotelian  forms  of  thought.     Though 
the  senses  existed  in  the  fetus  in '  potentiality,'  yet  it  is  not  till  the  world  of  out- 
ward  objects  is  presented  to  them  that  they  come  into  '  actuality.' 

4  When  particular  sensations  and  perceptions  are  acquired,  reason  deduces  general 
notions  from  them.     L. 

5  Koran,  Sura  VII.  178.     Compare  "  In  Memoriam,"  117,  7  : 

"  Move  upward,  working  out  the  beast, 
And  let  the  ape  and  tiger  die." 

F 


34 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 


But  if  from  the  spirit  world  there  shines  a  light 
From  the  attraction  of  grace  or  reflection  of  proof,1 
Then  his  heart  has  fellowship  with  the  light  of  "  The  Truth," 
And  he  turns  back  along  the  road  which  he  came. 
From  that  divine  attraction  or  certain  proof 
He  finds  his  way  to  assured  faith. 
330     He  arises  from  the  seventh  hell  of  the  wicked, 

He  sets  his  face  towards  the  seventh  heaven  of  the  righteous ; 
Then  is  he  clothed  with  the  quality  of  repentance,2 
And  is  made  one  chosen  among  the  children  of  Adam.3 
From  evil  deeds  he  becomes  pure, 
Like  Idris  the  prophet  he  is  caught  up  to  heaven. 
When  he  obtains  release  from  evil  habits, 
He  becomes  thereby  like  Noah  a  saviour  of  his  own  life. 
The  power  of  his  '  parts  '  remains  not  in  the  '  Whole,' 
And  like  "  the  Friend  of  God  "  he  acquires  trust  in  God.4 
335     His  will  is  joined  with  the  pleasure  of  "  The  Truth," 
And  like  Moses  he  enters  the  highest  door. 
He  obtains  release  from  his  own  knowledge, 
And  like  the  prophet  Jesus  he  becomes  near  to  God,5 
He  gives  up  his  existence  utterly  to  be  plundered, 
And  in  the  steps  of  the  "  Most  Pure  "  he  ascends.6 
But  when  his  last  point  is  joined  to  his  first, 
There  is  no  entrance  for  angel  or  for  prophet.7 


1  I.e.  illumination,  or  logical  demonstration.     L. 

'   Taubat,  repentance,  or  returning  to  God,  lias  four   stages,  viz.  turning  (])  from 
unbelief,  (2)  from  evil  actions,  (3)  from  evil  habits,  (4)  from  all  but  God.     L. 
8  See  note  on  couplet  545. 

4  I.e.  he  attains  fana,  utter  effacement  and  annihilation  of  self,— obliteration  of 
all   consciousness  and  perception  of  the  external  phenomenal  world,  — immersion  of 
the  soul  in  the  ocean  of  Divine  glory.     This  state  of  fana  involves   the  effacement 
of  his  individual  power,  will,  knowledge  and  entire  existence,  as  set  forth  in  this  and 
the  three  following  couplets.     L. 

5  See  Koran,  Sura  III.  40.     '  He  has  near  access  to  God.' 

0  /.  e.  Muhammad. 

1  Referring  to  the  Hadis,  quoted  under  couplet  120. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  35 

ILLUSTRATION.1 

The  prophet  is  as  a  sun,  the  saint  as  a  moon 

Is  set  over  against  him  in  the  point  '  I  am  wiik  God.' 

340     Prophethood  is  resplendent  in  its  own  perfection, 
The  saintship  therein  is  manifest  and  not  hidden. 
But  the  saintship  in  a  saint  is  concealed, 
Whereas  in  a  prophet  it  is  shown  forth  openly. 
When  a  saint  by  obedience  obtains  fellowship, 
And  intimacy  with  the  prophet  in  saintship  ; 2 
Then  from  the  text  '  If  ye  love  God  '  he  finds  entrance 
To  that  secret  chamber  '  God  will  love  you.'3 
In  that  secret  chamber  he  is  beloved, 
He  becomes  altogether  '  drawn  '*  to  "  The  Truth." 

345     The  saint  is  obedient  as  to  his  essence, 
He  is  a  devotee  in  the  street  of  essence,5 
Howbeit  his  work  is  finished  at  the  time 
That  his  end  is  joined  again  to  his  beginning  ?  6 


ANSWER  IV. — Continued. 
He  is  a  perfect  man  who  in  all  perfection 
Does  the  work  of  a  slave7  in  spite  of  his  lordliness. 

1  Saintship,  waliyat,  i.  e.  drawing  near  to  God  by  effacement  of  self,  is  common 
to  saints  and  prophets  ;  but  while  prophets  have  to  preach,  saints  have  only  to 
obey.  L. 

-  As  an  intimate,  mulirim,  he  obtains  entrance  to  the  Jiaram. 

3  Koran,  Sura  III.  29. 

4  Majzub  i  miuilak  is  the  appellation  of  the  Sufi  in  the  stage  offana. 

'  Though  absorbed  in  "  The  Truth  "  he  is  still  obedient  as  regards  his  essence, 
because  by  obedience  he  attained  his  exaltation.  L  . 

6  Here  '  beginning  '  means  the  state  of  phenomenal  existence,  and  '  end  '  the  state 
of  absorption  in  the  Absolute.  The  saint  first  accomplishes  '  the  journey  to  God,' 
ending  in  absorption  (fana)  and  abiding  or  eternal  life  in  God  (baka),  and  then 
journeys  down  again  to  bis  beginning  in  the  'journey  from  God  along  with  God,' 
and  is  conscious  that  he  is  Unity  in  plurality.  L. 

'  Servitude,  obedience,  'abudiyat,  is  the  characteristic  quality  of  a  saint. — Shea's 
Dabistan,  III.  24-1,  note.  In  his  downward  journey  the  saint  must  observe  and  obey 
the  positive  law,  notwithstanding  his  previous  union  with  Allah.  L. 

F    '2 


36  GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 

Afterwards,  when  he  has  finished  his  course, 
"  The  Truth  "  sets  ou  his  head  the  crown  of  Khalifate.1 
He  finds  eternal  life  after  dying  to  self,  and  again 
He  runs  another  course  from  his  end  to  his  beginning. 
350     He  makes  the  law  his  upper  garment, 

He  makes  the  mystic  path  his  inner  garment. 

But  know  very  truth  is  the  station  of  his  nature, 

He  comprehends  both  infidelity  and  faith. 

Being  endued  with  fair  virtues, 

And  famed  for  knowledge,  devotion  and  piety, 

All  these  in  him,  but  he  far  from  all  these, 

Overshadowed  beneath  the  canopy  of  Divine  Epiphanies.- 

ILLUSTRATION.3 

The  kernel  of  an  almond  is  utterly  spoiled, 

If  you  pluck  it  from  its  husk  while  it  is  unripe. 
355     But  when  it  grows  ripe  in  its  husk,  it  is  good  ; 

If  you  pluck  out  its  kernel,  you  break  the  husk. 

The  law  is  the  husk,  and  the  truth  is  the  kernel, 

The  mystic  path  lies  between  this  and  that. 

Error  in  the  traveller's  path  is  spoiling  of  the  kernel, 

When  the  kernel  is  ripe  it  is  good  without  its  husk. 

When  the  knower  experiences  certain  assurance,4 

The  kernel  becomes  ripe,  and  bursts  the  husk. 

His  being  remains  not  in  this  world, 

He  departs,  and  returns  again  no  more. 
360     Another  shines  as  a  bright  sun  still  retaining  the  husk,5 

1  7.  e.  the  vicegerence  of  God  on  earth.      Koran,  Sura  II.  28  :  "  Verily  we  are 
about  to  place  one  on  earth  as  a  Khalif." 

2  I.e.  He  is  in  the  state  of  fana,  or  absorption  in  God,  like  Moses  at  Mount 
Sinai.     Koran,  Sura  VII.  130,  quoted  in  note  to  couplet  194. 

3  This    illustration   is  explanatory   of  the  distinction   of  law,  sliarVat,  the   Sufi 
course,  tarikat,  and  truth,  hakikat,  all  of  which  go  to  form  the  perfect  man.     L. 

*  Knower,  i.  e.  he  who  obtains  Divine  'illumination.'     L. 

5  One  class  rest  at  the  stage  of  fana,  ecstatic  absorption  in  Unity,  and  law  has  no 
more  dominion  over  them.  These  are  the  "  Majzul  i  Nutlak,  Azad  or  Be  Shara'  " 
devotees.  Another,  more  perfect  class,  pass  on  to  the  stage  of  '  sobriety  after 


GULSHAN    I    BAZ.  37 

When  in  this  state  he  makes  another  circuit. 
From  water  and  earth  he  springs  up  into  a  tree, 
Whose  branches  are  lifted  up  above  the  heavens.1 
The  same  brings  forth  in  his  turn  another  seed, 
One  yielding  a  hundred  fold  by  fiat  of  the  Almighty. 
Like  the  growth  of  a  seed  into  the  line  of  a  tree, 
From  point  comes  a  line,  and  from  line  again  a  circle. 
When  the  pilgrim  has  finished  the  circuit  of  this  circle, 
Then  his  last  point  is  joined  to  his  first. 
365     Again  he  may  be  likened  to  a  pair  of  compasses, 

Ending  in  the  same  impression  whence  they  began.2 

When  he  has  finished  his  course  to  the  end, 

"  The  Truth  "  sets  on  his  head  the  crown  of  Khalifate. 

These  circuits  are  not  transmigrations  of  souls,  for  verily 

They  are  manifested  in  the  visions  of  Epiphanies,3 

'  Verily  they  ash,  saying,  what  is  the  end, 

And  the  answer  is  the  return  to  the  beginning.' 4 

RULE  II.5 

The  first  appearance  of  prophethood  was  in  Adam, 
And  its  perfection  was  in  the  '  Seal  of  the  prophets.' 6 

intoxication,'  and  carrying  with  them  "  The  Truth,"  descend  to  phenomenal  being,  and 
in  that  descent  fulfil  all  the  duties  of  the  law  as  an  ensample  to  others.     L. 

'  "  The  Truth,"  like  a  kernel  or  seed  embodied  in  the  '  knower,'  comes  down  as  a 
shining  light  or  pattern  to  the  phenomenal  world,  though  still  retaining  the  husk  of 
the  law.  This  seed  is  sown  in  the  good  soil  of  his  disciples,  and  springs  upon 
them  into  a  tree,  which  again  is  lifted  up  to  heaven,  i.  e.  repeats  the  same  circuit 
up  to  Allah.  L. 

1  Obeying  the  law  in  his  downward  journey,  as  he  did  in  his  first  upward  journey.  L. 

1  In  metempsychosis  one  body  perishes  and  another  succeeds  it  as  a  receptacle  of 
the  soul,  but  in  these  circuits  the  truth  may  be  manifested  in  teacher  and  disciple 
at  once.  L. 

4  See  Koran,  Sura  LVII.  6  :  "  And  unto  God  shall  all  things  return."  And  X.  4  : 
"  He  produceth  a  creature,  and  then  causeth  it  to  return  again."  Compare  the 
Proodos  and  Epistrophe  of  Proclus,  the  raying  out  and  return  of  all  existences  from 
and  to  the  absolute  unity.  Ueberweg,  History  of  Philosophy,  Eng.  Trans.  I.  257. 

s  On  the  relation  of  prophethood  to  saintship,the  two  embodiments  of  truth,  liakikat. 

0  Muhammad. 


38  GULSHAN    1    RAZ. 

370     Saintship  lingers  behind  while  it  makes  a  journey, 

And  like  a  point  makes  another  circuit  in  the  world.1 
Its  entirety  will  be  seen  in  the  '  Seal  of  the  saints,' 
In  him  will  be  completed  the  circuit  of  the  world.2 
Individual  saints  are  as  it  were  his  members, 
For  he  is  the  whole  and  they  are  the  parts. 
Since  he  holds  close  relation  to  our  lord, 
Through  him  will  be  shown  mercy  most  complete.* 
He  will  be  the  Imam  of  both  worlds, 
He  will  be  the  Khalif  of  the  children  of  Adam. 

ILLUSTRATION.4 

375     When  the  light  of  the  sun  is  divided  from  the  night, 

You  see  its  dawn  and  up-rising  and  full  ascension. 

Again  from  the  circling  of  the  revolving  heavens 

Declension  and  afternoon  and  sunset  are  seen. 

The  light  of  the  prophet  is  a  mighty  sun,5 

Now  shining  in  Moses,  now  in  Adam. 

If  you  read  the  chronicles  of  the  world, 

You  will  know  clearly  its  several  degrees. 

From  this  sun  every  moment  is  cast  a  shadow, 

Which  is  one  degree  in  the  ascension  of  faith. 
380     The  time  of  our  lord  is  the  meridian  line,6 

For  he  is  purified  from  all  shadow  of  darkness. 

On  the  meridian  line  he  stands  upright, 

1  When  prophecy  ceased  with  Muhammad,  saintship  alone  remained,  aud  made 
the  circuit  of  the  world  in  the  persons  of  the  various  saints.     L. 

!  Muhammad  Mehdi,  the  twelfth  Imam,  who  will  appear  at  the  end  of  the  world. 
•  3  Koran,  Sura  XXI.   107 :    "  We  have  not  sent  thee,  but    as   a    mercy  to   all 
creatures." 

4  On  the  relation  of  the  minor  prophets  to  Muhammad,  and  the  minor  saints   to 
Muhammad  Mehdi.     L. 

5  I.  e.  Muhammad.    He  is  said  to  be  Huh  i  'azam,  'Akl  i  Tcull,  ar.d  hakikat  i  insani, 
that  is,  the  first  emanation  from  Deity  ;  and  the  minor  prophets  are  thus  emanations 
from  him.      Hence  he  is  compared  to  the  Sun,  because  '  the  first  thing  God  emitted 
was  light.'     L. 

*  When  the  sun  is  on  the  meridian,  at  the  time  of  the  equinox,  there  are  no  shadows 
in  countries  near  the  Equator.  L.     Compare  Dante,  Purgatorio,  XXX.  89. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  39 

Casting  no  shadow  before  or  behind,  on  the  right  hand  or  on 
the  left. 

Since  he  stands  on  the  '  narrow  way  '  "  of  The  Truth,"  1 

And  takes  his  stand  on  the  command  'Be  steadfast.'2 

He  casts  no  shadow,  for  that  involves  darkness. 

Hail,  0  Light  of  God,  0  shadow  of  Divinity  ! 

His  Kibla 3  is  between  east  and  west, 

Because  it  is  drowned  in  the  midst  of  light. 
385     When  by  his  power  Satan  becomes  a  Musulman,4 

He  will  be  as  a  shadow  hidden  under  his  feet. 

All  degrees  are  beneath  his  degree, 

The  existence  of  things  of  earth  is  from  his  shadow. 

From  his  light  his  saintship  is  casting  shadows, 

The  west  is  made  equal  to  the  east.5 

For  every  shadow  cast  at  the  beginning  of  his  course, 

Another  corresponding  one  is  cast  at  the  ending. 

At  this  present  every  doctor  of  the  faith 

Is  as  one  corresponding  to  the  prophets  in  prophecy.6 
390     But  since  a  prophet  is  most  perfect  through  prophethood, 

He  is  of  necessity  more  excellent  than  any  saint. 

Saintship  will  be  all  shown  forth  in  the  "  Seal  of  the  Saints  ; " 

The  last  point  will  be  finished  in  the  first. 

Through  him  the  earth  will  be  filled  with  peace  and  faith, 

1  Koran,  Sura  I.  3.  The  allusion  is  to  the  Sirat,  or  narrow  bridge  over  hell,  along 
which  all  men  will  have  to  pass  on  the  day  of  judgment. 

"  Be    thou   steadfast   therefore   as   thou    hast    been    commanded."  —  Koran, 
Sura  XI.  114. 

*  Kibla,  the  point  to  which  the  faithful  turn  in  prayer,  indicated  by  the  Mihrab, 
or   niche  in    mosques.     See  Daniel  vi.  10.     Lahiji   says  the  Kibla  of  Moses  was   in 
the  West,  and  that  of  Jesus  in  the  East,  but  that  of  Muhammad  in  the  centre. 

*  There  is  a  tradition,  both   among  the   Muhammadans  and  in  the  Kabbala,  that 
Satan  will  become  an  angel  of  light.     Compare  2  Cor.  xi.  14. 

6  The  lesser  prophets  and  saints  are  reflections  from  his  light.  The  reflections 
during  the  ascent  of  the  Sun  of  prophecy  up  to  Muhammad  are  prophets,  and  those 
during  its  descent  saints,  who  are  also  prophets  in  one  sense.  L. 

6  Alluding  to  the  Hadis  :  "  The  'ulama  of  my  faith  are  as  the  prophets  of  the 
children  of  Israel." 


40  GULSHAN    I   RAZ. 


Through  him  stones  and  animals  will  receive  life.1 
There  will  remain  not  in  the  world  one  infidel  soul, 
True  equity  will  be  made  manifest  altogether. 
By  the  secret  of  Unity  he  will  attain  to  "  The  Truth," 
In  him  will  be  shown  forth  the  face  of  the  "  Absolute." 


QUESTION  V. 

395     Who  then  is  he  who  attains  to  the  secret  of  unity  ? 
Who  is  the  understanding  one  that  is  a  knower  ? 3 

ANSWER  V. 

That  man  attains  to  the  secret  of  unity 
Who  is  not  detained  at  the  stages  on  the  road. 
But  the  knower  is  he  that  knows  Very  Being, 
He  that  witnesses  Absolute  Being.4 
He  recognises  no  being  but  Very  Being, 
And  being  such  as  his  own  he  gambles  clean  away. 
Your  being  is  naught  but  thorns  and  weeds,5 
Cast  it  all  clean  away  from  you. 
400     Go  sweep  out  the  chamber  of  your  heart, 


1  With  this  may  be  compared  the  eulogium  on  the  prophet  in  the  introduction  of 
the  Mantik  ut  Tair.  See  Garciu  de  Tassy  ("Poesie  Philosophique  et  Religieuse," 
p.  24).  Muhammad  Mehdi  is  Muhammad  in  his  second  coming.  L. 

9  Koran,  Sura  XXVJII.  88  :  "  Everything  perishes  except  Thy  face." 

*  Knower,  one  who  beholds  "  The  Truth  "  with  his  '  illumined  '   soul,  and  not 
with  his  reason.     The  '  secret  of  Unity'  is  that  there  is  no  other  being  besides  "The 
Truth."     L. 

*  Absolute  Being  is  that  which  is  free  from  all  limitation,  kaid.     L. 

*  Compare  Hafiz,  Ode  385  (Brockhaus'  edition)  : 

"  Sweep  off  the  life  of  Hafiz  as  a  dream, 

Whilst  Thou  art,  none  shall  hear  me  say  '  I  am.'  " 
And  Ode  487  : 

"  from  His  heart  girdle-wise  you  dwell  apart, 
While  girdle- wise  your  '  self  enfolds  your  heart." 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  41 

Make  it  ready  to  be  the  dwelling-place  of  the  Beloved. 

When  you  depart  out,  He  will  enter  in, 

In  you,  void  of  yourself,  will  He  display  His  beauty. 

The  man  who  is  loved  for  his  'pious  ivorks,1 

Whom  the  pains  of  '  negation ' 2  purify  as  a  room  that  is  swept, 

He  finds  an  abode  in  a  '  laudable  station,' 

He  finds  a  portion  in  '  what  eye  hath  not  seen,  nor  car  heard.' 3 

But  while  the  stain  of  his  own  being  remains  on  him, 

The  knowledge  of  the  knower  assumes  not  the  form  of  expe- 


rience.4 


405     Until  you  cast  away  obstacles  from  before  you, 
The  light  enters  not  the  chamber  of  your  heart. 
As  there  are  four  obstacles  in  this  world, 
So  also  the  modes  of  purification  from  them  are  four  : ; 
First,  purification  from  filthiness  of  the  flesh ; 
Second,  from  sin  and  evil  "  whispers  of  the  tempter ;  "  6 
The  third  is  the  purification  from  bad  habits, 
Which  make  men  as  beasts  of  the  field ; 
The  fourth  is  the  purification  of  the  secret,7 
For  at  this  point  the  pilgrim's  journeyings  cease. 

410     Whoso  is  cleansed  with  these  purifications, 
Verily  he  is  fit  to  commune  with  God. 


1  "  And  watch  some  part  of  the  night  in  the  same  exercise  as  a  pious  work  of 
supererogation  for  thee,  peradventure  thy  Lord  will  raise  thee  to  a  laudable  station." 
-Koran,  Sura  XVII.  81. 

8  In  the  ejaculation  "  eiJcr  "  of  the  creed,  Tcalima,  ('  There  is  no  God  but  God,  and 
Muhammad  is  the  prophet  of  God'),  the  first  clause  is  called  negation,  nafi.  Here 
'  negation  '  means  denying  all  other  existences  besides  God.  L.  The  expression 
'  pains  of  negation '  would  also  seem  to  imply  self-denial  in  a  practical  sense, — 
mortifying  the  flesh. 

3  See  1  Corinthians  ii.  9. 

*  See  couplet  63.   His  theoretical  knowledge  is  naught,  till  he  personally  experiences 
and  feels  the  '  Secret  of  Unity.'     L. 

*  These  are  the  four  degrees  of  purification  enumerated  by  Ghazzali. — Sale's  Koran, 
Prelim.  Discourse,  75. 

6  Koran,  Sura  CXIV.  4. 

'  "  Secret,"  i.  e.  the  heart,  the  secret  thoughts.     L. 

Q 


42  GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 

Until  you  utterly  gamble  away  yourself,1 

How  can  your  prayer  be  true  prayer  ? 2 

When  your  essence  is  pure  from  all  stain,3 

Then  it  is  that  your  prayers  are  '  a  joy  of  the  eyes,'* 

There  remains  then  no  distinction, 

Knower  and  known  are  one  and  the  same. 


QUESTION  VI. 

If  knower  and  known  are  both  the  One  pure  essence, 
What  are  the  aspirations  in  this  handful  of  dust  ? 5 

ANSWER  VI. 

415     Be  not  thankless  for  the  grace  of  "  The  Truth," 

For  it  is  by  the  light  of  "  The  Truth  "  that  you  know  "  The 
Truth :  "  c 

1  From  the  harvest  of  existence  he  will  never  reap  a  grain 
Who  has  never  sown  a  seed  corn  in  annihilation's  lane. 

JIafiz  (Brockhaus7  edition),  Ode  61. 

1  Ghazzali,  quoted  in  Tholuck,  Ssufismus,  pp.  4.  105,  says,  "  Prayers  (zilcr)  have 
three  veils,  (1)  prayers  pronounced  with  the  tongue  only,  (2)  prayers  undis- 
tracted  by  evil  thoughts,  (3)  prayers  offered  with  such  fervour,  that  the 
mind  can  hardly  be  recalled  from  thoughts  of  God.  But  the  marrow  of  prayer 
is  when  the  object  of  prayer  possesses  the  heart,  and  prayer  is  effaced  and 
ceases,  and  the  sayer  of  prayer  attends  no  more  to  prayer  nor  his  own  heart.  These 
are  submerged,  and  if  he  attends  to  them  that  is  a  veil  and  a  distraction.  This  is  the 
state  named  fana,  effacement,  wherein  he  is  effaced  from  self,  so  that  he  is  aware 
neither  of  his  body,  nor  of  outward  things,  nor  of  inward  affections.  He  is  '  rapt ' 
from  all  these,  journeying  first  to  his  Lord,  second  in  his  Lord  :  and  if  the  thought 
that  he  is  effaced  from  self  occurs  to  him,  that  is  a  blemish.  The  best  stage  is  to  be 
effaced  from  effaeement."  Compare  St.  Theresa's  '  Prayer  of  Rapture.' — Vaughan, 
II.  132. 

3  /.  e.  stain  of  your  own  phenomenal  individual  being,  or  self.     L.     This  is  just 
Eckart's  view.     Vaughan,  1.  163. 

4  Koran,  Sura  XXXII.  18. 

5  What  is  the  cause  of  the  love  and  ardour  for  knowledge  of"  The  Truth  "  seen 
in  man  ?     L. 

0  Having  no  real  existence  of  your  own,  it  is  only  by  the  communicated  existence 
and  knowledge  of  God  that  you  know  Him.  L. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  43 

Besides  Him  is  no  knower  or  known,  Be  sure, 

Nevertheless  the  dust  draws  heat  from  the  sun.1 

It  is  not  strange  that  the  motes  of  dust  have  hope,2 

And  desire  for  the  sun's  heat  and  light. 

Call  to  mind  the  state  and  circumstance  of  your  creation, 

For  thence  will  you  learn  the  root  of  your  thought. 

To  whom  said  God,  '  Am  not  I  your  Lord  ? ' 3 

Who  was  it  who  then  answered  '  Yea  ? ' 
420     On  that  day  when  He  '  kneaded  the  clay,'  * 

He  wrote  by  grace  the  faith  on  the  heart. 

If  you  will  read  forthwith  that  writing,5 

You  will  understand  whatsoever  you  desire. 

Last  night  you  tied  the  knot  of  the  "  covenant  of  service,"6 

But  have  now  forgotten  it  through  ignorance  ; 

And  therefore  the  word  of  "  The  Truth  "  was  sent  down7 

To  recall  to  your  mind  that  primeval  covenant. 

If  you  have  seen  "  The  Truth  "  at  the  beginning, 

You  may  see  Him  again  in  this  place. 
425     In  this  place  behold  His  attributes  to-day, 

That  you  may  behold  His  essence  to-morrow.8 


1  Just  as  man  draws  his  ardour  for  knowledge  of  "  The  Truth,"  from  "  The 
Truth."  L. 

*  Motes  are  only  seen  in  the  sunbeams,  just  as  the  phenomena  men  are  manifested 
by  the  shining  of  "  The  Truth."  L. 

3  "  And  when  the  Lord  drew  forth  their  posterity  from  the  loins  of  Adam,  and  took 
them  to  witness  against  themselves,  saying,  Am  not  I  your  Lord  ?  they  answered, 
Yea." — Koran,  Sura  VII.  171.     Knowledge  of  God  was  thus  one  of  the  essential 
properties  implanted  in  man  at  his  first  origin.     L. 

4  Alluding  to  the  Hadis :  "  He  kneaded  the  clay  of  Adam  forty  days." 

5  I.  e.  the  innate  knowledge  engraved  on  the  heart  at  creation.     L. 

8  The  creature  when  fresh  from  the  Divine  hand,  undefiled  by  plurality,  knew  and 
confessed  its  dependence  on  "  The  Truth ."  L. 

1  I.  e.  in  the  mouths  of  the  prophets. 

$  I.  e.  in  the  world  to  come.  This  is  addressed  only  to  ordinary  men,  for  saints 
and  '  knowers  '  attain  the  world  to  come  in  this  present  world.  L. 

G    2 


44  GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 

And  if  you  cannot,  yet  be  not  cast  down, 

Go,  hearken  to  the  text  '  Thou  canst  not  direct.' l 

ILLUSTRATION.2 

He  that  is  horn  blind  believes  not  what  you  say  of  colours, 
Though  you  show  him  instances  and  proofs  for  a  century. 
White  and  yellow  and  red  and  dark  and  light  green 
Are  to  him  naught  but  darkest  black. 
See  the  evil  plight  of  one  blind  from  his  birth, 
Can  he  ever  gain  sight  from  the  physician's  eye  salve  ? 
430     Reason  cannot  see  the  state  of  the  world  to  come, 

As  a  man  born  blind  cannot  see  things  in  this  world. 
But  in  addition  to  reason  man  has  a  certain  faculty,3 
Whereby  he  perceives  hidden  mysteries. 
Like  fire  in  flint  and  steel, 

God  has  placed  this  faculty  in  man's  soul  and  body ; 
When  that  flint  and  steel  are  struck  together,4 
The  two  worlds  are  illumined  by  the  flash ! 
From  that  collision  is  this  mystery  made  clear, 
Now  you  have  heard  it,  go  and  attend  to  your  Self. 

1  "  Verily  thou  canst  not  direct  whom  thou  wilt,  but  God  directeth  whom  he 
pleaseth." — Koran,  Sura  XX VI  [I.  56.  It  is  not  every  one  who  has  power  to  see 
and  know  "  The  Truth  "  in  this  life.  L. 

'  Those  who  are  void  of  the  capacity  for  knowledge  of  God,  and  who  are  not 
'  illumined '  by  Divine  grace,  are  like  men  born  blind.  The  religious  faculty  is 
wanting  in  them.  They  have  nothing  but  reason  to  rely  on.  L. 

8  '  Faculty,'  taur,  literally  mode,  manner,  condition,  state,  action.  It  is  evoked, 
says  Lahiji,  by  love  and  desire  of  knowledge  of  "  The  Truth,"  and  ends,  when 
exposed  to  the  favourable  conditions  of  the  Sufi  '  progress,'  in  Divine  illumination. 
The  leading  principle  of  all  mysticism  is  that  independently  of  reason  man  possesses 
an  inward  sense  or  faculty — an  '  inner  light,'  or  an  intuition,  which  under  certain 
conditions  conveys  to  him  a  knowledge  of  God  by  direct  apprehension,  in  a  manner 
similar  to  the  evidence  of  the  senses.  Hugo  of  St.  Victor  names  it  the  '  Eye  of 
Intelligence.' — Vaughan,  I.  134. 

4  The  striking  together  of  the  flint  and  steel  means  the  Sufi  progress,  the  purify- 
ing the  heart  from  the  stain  of  '  other.'  By  this  collision  the  flame  of  love  is  kindled 
which  burns  up  the  Sufi's  phenomenal  being,  and  shows  him  his  true  '  self  an  integral 
portion  of  "  The  All."  L. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  45 


435     Your  Self  is  a  copy  made  in  the  image  of  God,1 
Seek  in  your  Self  all  that  you  desire  to  know.2 


QUESTION  VII. 

To  what  point  belongs  the  aphorism,  '  I  am  The  Truth  ? ' 3 
Why  call  you  that  impostor  a  vain  babbler  ?  * 

ANSWER  VII. 

Verily  '  /  am  The  Truth  '  is  a  revelation  of  absolute  mystery, 
Save  '  The  Truth,'  who  can  say  <  I  am  The  Truth  ? ' 
All  the  atoms  of  the  world,  like  Mansur, 
You  will  take  to  be  drunken  and  heavy  with  wine ; 
Continually  are  they  singing  this  song  of  praise,5 
Continually  dwelling  on  this  mystic  verity. 
440     If  you  desire  that  its  meaning  may  be  clear  to  you, 
Then  read  the  text,  '  All  praise  Allah.'6 
When  you  have  carded  '  self '  as  cotton, 

1  Similarly,  Bernard  of  Clairvaux  taught  that  each  soul  contains  a  copy  of  the  ideas 
in  the  Divine  mind,  so  that  the  pure  in  heart,  in  proportion  as  they  have  cleansed 
the  internal  mirror,  must  in  knowing  themselves  also  know  God.  — Vaughan,  I.  3J-. 
Compare  the  Hadis :  "  He  created  Adam  in  His  own  image,"  and,  "  He  who  knows 
himself  knows  his  Lord."  L. 

8  I.  e.  in  your  real  self,  after  you  have  died  to  your  phenomenal  self,  and  live 
eternally  again  in  "  The  Truth."  Compare  Max  Miiller,  Ilibbert  Lectures,  375. 
"The  (Brnhman's) highest  knowledge  was  expressed  in  the  words  tat  tvam,  'thou  art 
It' ;  thou  thyself,  thy  own  true  Self,  that  which  can  never  be  taken  from  thee ;  when 
everything  else  that  seemed  to  be  thine  for  a  time  disappears  ;  when  all  that  was 
created  vanishes  again  like  a  dream,  thy  own  true  Self  belongs  to  the  Eternal  Self; 
the  Atman  or  Self  within  thee  is  the  true  Brahman,  from  whom  thou  wast  estranged 
for  a  time  through  birth  and  death,  but  who  receives  thee  back  again  as  soon  as  thou 
returnest  to  Him  or  to  It." 

3  Point,  i.e.  the  point  or  degree  of  the  Mystic  who  has  found  eternal  life  in  real 
Unity  after  annihilation  of  his  phenomenal  self,  baka  ba'd  ulfana.     L. 

4  Hossain  Mansur  '  Hallaj  '  (the  wool-carder),  who  was  put  to  death  at  Bagdad 
in  300  A.  H.  for  using  these  words. 

5  Talilil  and  Tasbih  are  two  of  the  ejaculations  in  most  frequent  use. 
*  "  There  is  naught  but  praiseth  Allah." — Koran,  Sura  XVII.  46. 


46  GULSHAN    I    EAZ. 

You,  like  the  '  wool  carder,'  will  raise  this  cry. 
Take  out  the  cotton  of  your  illusion  from  your  ears, 
Hearken  to  the  call  of  The  One,  The  Almighty.1 
This  call  is  ever  coming  to  you  from  "The  Truth," 
Why  are  you  tarrying  for  the  last  day  ? 
Come  into  the  "valley  of  peace,"  for  straightway2 
The  bush  will  say  to  you,  '  Verily  I  am  Allah.' 

445     The  saying  "  I  am  '  The  Truth  '  "  was  lawful  for  the  bush, 
Why  is  it  unlawful  in  the  mouth  of  a  good  man  ? 
Every  man  whose  heart  is  pure  from  doubt, 
Knows  for  a  surety  that  there  is  no  being  but  (  One.' 
Saying  '  I  am  '  belongs  only  to  "  The  Truth," 
For  essence  is  absent,  and  illusive  appearance  is  absent.3 
The  glory  of  "  The  Truth  "  admits  no  duality, 
In  that  glory  is  no  '  I '  or  '  We  '  or  '  Thou.' 
'  I,'  '  We,'  '  Thou  '  and  '  He  '  are  all  one  thing, 
For  in  Unity  there  is  no  distinction  of  persons. 

450     Every  man  who  as  a  void  is  empty  of  self, 

Re-echoes  within  him  the  cry  '  I  am  The  Truth  ; ' 
He  takes  his  eternal  side,  '  other '  perishes,4 
Travelling,  travel,  and  traveller  all  become  One. 
Incarnation  and  Communion  spring  from  '  other,' 
But  very  Unity  comes  from  the  mystic  journey.5 
That  which  is  separate  from  "  The  Truth  "  is  phenomenal 
existence, 


1  "  With   whom    shall   be   the   power  on  that  day  ?     With    God,  the  One,  the 
Almighty." — Koran,  Sura  XL.  16. 

2  See  Koran,  Sura  XX.  14,  for  the  history  of  the  burning  bush. 

3  Essence,  literally  "  He,"  Hu,  which  is  the  technical  name  of  metaphysical  essence 
in  regard  of  its  hidden  nature.      L.     Aristotle,  Met.  VII.  (VI.)  10,  says,  matter  in 
itself  is  incognoscible. 

4  Every  existing  thing  has  two  '  sides  '  or  aspects,  one  qua  its  phenomenal  being, 
which  is  '  other,'  and  one  qua  its  real  being,  as  an  integral  portion  of  '  Unity,'   which 
is  its  eternal  side.     L. 

5  I.  e.  the  annihilation  of  man's  phenomenal  self,  which  obscures  his  real  Self,  '  The 
Truth,'  as  the  waves  cover  the  sea.     L. 


OULSHAN    I    RAZ.  47 

Neither  does  "  The  Truth  "  become  a  creature,  nor  is  a 

creature  united  with  Allah.1 

Incarnation  and  Communion  are  here  impossible,2 
For  duality  in  unity  is  clearly  absurd. 

455     The  existence  of  creatures  and  plurality  is  but  a  semblance, 
And  not  every  thing  that  seems  to  be  really  is. 

ILLUSTRATION.3 

Set  a  mirror  over  against  you,4 
Look  on  it  and  see  that  other  person. 
Again  see  what  that  reflection  is, 
It  is  not  this  nor  that,  what  then  is  that  reflection  ? 
Since  I  am  limited  to  my  own  proper  self, 
I  know  not  what  is  this  shadow  of  me ; 
In  fine,  how  can  not  being  be  joined  with  being  ? 
The  two,  light  and  darkness,  cannot  be  united. 
460     Like  the  past  the  future  month  and  year  exist  not, 
What  is  there  but  this  one  point  of  the  present  ? 
Time  is  one  imaginary  point,  and  that  ever  passing  away, 
You  have  named  it  the  fleeting  river. 
There  is  none  other  in  this  desert,  but  only  I, 
Tell  me  what  is  this  echo  and  noise  ? 
Accidents  are  fleeting,  substance  is  compounded  of  them, 
Say  how  does  it  exist  or  where  is  this  compound  ?  5 
Bodies  exist  only  through  length,  breadth  and  depth, 

1  As  in  Incarnation  and  Communion.     L. 

"  Hulul,  Incarnation,  as  in  couplet  102.  Itti/iad,  the  conjunction  or  communion 
of  two  different  things  or  persons  in  one.  Wahdat,  unity,  oneness.  See  Tholuck, 
Ssufismus,  page  142.  There  were  sects  of  Sufis  who  held  each  of  these  doctrines. — 
Malcolm's  Persia,  II.  271. 

s  This  illustration  gives  samples  of  apparent  existences,  which  are  not  really 
existent,  e.g.  reflections,  past  and  future  time,  echoes,  and  even  substances  (bodies), 
since  they  are  composed  only  of  fleeting  accidents.  L. 

4  Hugo  of  St.  Victor  uses  the  same  illustration. — Maurice,  Medieval  Philosophy, 
page  145. 

5  See  couplet  478. 


48  GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 

Since  their  existence  proceeds  from  these  nonentities.1 
465     And  of  this  kind  is  all  the  fabric  of  the  two  worlds ; 
Now  you  know  this,  have  faith  and  be  stablished. 
Of  a  truth  there  is  no  other  existence  than  "  The  Truth," 
Whether  you  say  'He  is  the  Truth,'  or  '  I  am  the  Truth.' 
Separate  imaginary  appearances  from  True  Being, 
Make  not  yourself  a  stranger  but  a  friend.2 


QUESTION  VIII. 

Why  call  they  a  creature  'united,'3 

How  can  he  achieve  travelling  and  journey  ? 

ANSWER  VIII. 

Union  with  "The  Truth "  is  separation  from  the  creature  state,4 
Friendship  with  Him  is  estrangement  from  self.5 
470     When  the  contingent  wipes  off  the  dust  of  contingency, 
Nothing  remains  save  Necessary  Being. 
The  existence  of  the  two  worlds  is  as  a  dream, 
In  the  moment  of  eternity  they  become  naught. 
He  who  is  '  united  '  is  not  a  creature,6 
The  perfect  man  says  not  so. 
How  shall  not  being  find  entrance  at  that  door  ? 
What  connection  has  the  dust  with  the  Lord  of  Lords  ? 

1   I.  e.  the  accidents  of  length,  breadth  and  depth.     L. 

'  It  is  only  these  phenomenal  appearances,  which  are  mere  accidental  accretions 
to  True  Being,  that  veil  it  from  you,  and  make  you  a  stranger  to  it.  L. 

*  This  answer  discusses  the  nature  of  the  perfected  Sufi,  wasil  i  Hakk,  i.e.  he  who 
has  drawn  near  to  "  The  Truth," — who  has  arrived  at  Unity.  Wasal  is  defined  in 
the  Tamdmi-ul-asdmi,  "  The  extinction  of  our  own  existence  in  the  existence  of  God,  as 
snow  melts  in  the  sea  and  as  motes  vanish  in  the  sun." — Tholuck,  Ssufismus,  72. 
Compare  the  Henosis  and  Haplosis  of  Plotinus.  Ueberweg,  i.  251. 

4  '  Creature  state,'  i.  e.  phenomenal  illusion  of  duality.    L. 

5  Compare  St.  James,  iv.  4  :  "  The  friendship  of  the  world  is  enmity  with  God." 

0  His  phenomenal  '  side '  vanishes,  and  nothing  remains  hut  his  eternal  '  side' 
of  Very  Being.  L. 


OULSHAN    I    RAZ.  49 

How  can  not  being  be  united  with  "  The  Truth  ?" 
How  can  not  being  achieve  travelling  and  journey  ? 

475     If  your  soul  were  cognizant  of  this  mystery, 

You  would  straightway  say  "  God  pardon  my  error.1  " 

You  are  non-existent,2  and  not  being  is  ever  immovable, 

How  can  this  non-existent  contingent  move  to  the  necessary  ? 

No  substance  possesses  objectivity 3  without  accidents, 

And  what  is  an  accident  ? — what  "endures  not  two  moments." 

Philosophers,  who  have  written  on  natural  science, 

Define  bodies  by  length,  breadth  and  depth.4 

What  then  is  matter  but  an  absolute  nonentity 

Wherein  is  demonstrated  form  ? 

480     As  then  form  without  matter  is  not  self  existent,5 

So  too  matter  without  a  form  is  naught  but  not  being. 
All  the  bodies  in  the  universe  consist  of  these  two  nonentities, 
Whereof  nothing  is  known,  but  their  non-existence. 
Consider  then  their  whole  essence  without  more  or  less,6 
In  itself  it  is  neither  existent  nor  non-existent.7 
Look  upon  contingent  being  in  spirit  and  in  truth, 
For  apart  from  necessary  being  it  is  naught. 
Absolute  Being  by  its  own  perfection  is  pervading  all,8 
Phenomenal  objects  are  mere  imaginary  things ; 9 

485     Imaginary  things  are  not  really  existent, 

1  I.  e.  in  calling  a  creature  '  united,'  Wasil  i  Hakk.     L. 

*  I.e.  in  your  creature  state.     L. 

8  '  Objectivity,'   '  ayn, — evidence,  visibility,    externality.    "  Non  incurrunt  ipsae 

substantise  in  oculos,  sed  vestitae  et  ornataa  accidentibus." — Melancthon,  quoted  by 
Hamilton,  Metaphysics,  I.  139. 

*  /.  e.  by  mere  accidents.    L. 

5  See  note  on  couplet  704. 

6  Whole  essence,  mahiyat,  the  Aristotelian  to  ti,  species.     Schmb'lders,  Documenta. 
Here  matter  plus  form. 

7  If  existent  it  could  not  become  non-existent,  and  vice  versa.     L. 

8  Its  perfection  is  to  be  manifested.     L.     See  couplet  139. 

5  Amri  'itibari.  "  That  which  has  no  existence  except  in  the  mind  of  him  who 
conceives  it,  and  so  long  as  he  conceives  it." — Jorjani,  T'arifat,  Notices  des  Mss.X.84. 
I.e.  merely  subjective. 

H 


50  GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 

Though  the  numbers  are  many,  only  One  is  counted. 

The  world  has  only  a  simulated  existence, 

Its  state  is  but  an  insubstantial  pageant  and  a  farce.1 

ILLUSTRATION. 
OF  MODES  OF  BEING.2 

The  mist  is  raised  up  out  of  the  sea, 
By  command  of  "  The  Truth  "  it  rains  down  on  the  desert. 
The  sun's  rays  are  shed  down  from  the  fourth  heaven, 
And  are  mingled  with  the  water. 
Then  the  heat  strives  to  ascend  on  high, 
And  the  water  of  the  sea  clings  to  it. 
490     And  when  with  these  are  joined  earth  and  air, 

There  comes  forth  the  green  and  pleasant  plant.3 

This  becomes  the  food  of  and  is  transformed  into  animals, 

Which  are  eaten  by  and  transmuted  into  man. 

It  becomes  seed,  and  passes  through  divers  states, 

And  then  there  is  born  of  it  another  man. 

Then  when  the  reasonable  soul  as  a  light  enters  the  body,1 

There  is  produced  a  fair  and  brilliant  form  ; 

It  becomes  child,  youth,  adult  and  then  aged  man, 

It  knows  wisdom,  knowledge,  reason,  counsel. 

1  Compare  Koran,  Sura  XXIX.  64  :    "  This  present  life  is  no  other  than  a  pastime 
and  a  sport." 

2  I.e.  of  the  modes  in  which  Absolute  Being  is  evolved   or  manifested  in  phe- 
nomenal plural  objects.     L. 

3  Compare  Milton's  Paradise  Lost,  V.  479  : 

So  from  the  root 

Springs  lighter  the  green  stalk,  from  thenee  the  leaves 
More  airy,  last  the  bright  consummate  flower 
Spirits  odorous  breathes  ;  flowers  and  their  fruit, 
Man's  nourishment,  by  gradual  scale  sublimed 
To  vital  spirits  aspire,  to  animal, 
To  intellectual,  give  both  life  and  sense 
Fancy  and  understanding,  whence  the  soul 
Reason  receives,  and  reason  is  her  being. 

4  Alluding  to  Koran,  Sura  XV.  29 :  "I  have  breathed  of  my  spirit  into  man." 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  51 

495     Then  comes  his  appointed  time  from  the  pure  presence, 

Pure  spirit  returns  to  spirit,  dust  to  dust.1 

All  the  parts  of  the  world  are  like  plants, 

They  are  single  drops  from  the  ocean  of  life.2 

When  the  set  times  of  their  manifestations  pass  by, 

Their  end  becomes  again  their  beginning.3 

Every  one  of  them  tends  towards  its  Centre, 

For  its  nature  forsakes  not  its  centripetal  character. 

Unity  is  like  a  sea,  albeit  a  sea  of  blood,4 

Whereout  rise  thousands  of  mad  waves. 
500     Behold  how  this  drop  of  water  from  that  sea, 

Has  assumed  so  many  names  and  forms ! 

Mist,  cloud,  rain,  dew,  clay, 

Plant  and  animal,  and  perfect  man. 

In  fine  it  was  one  drop  of  water  at  the  first, 

Wherefrom  all  these  things  were  fashioned.5 

This  universe  of  reason,  soul,  heavens  and  bodies,6 

Is  as  a  drop  of  water  in  its  beginning  and  ending. 

When  their  appointed  time  comes  to  heaven  and  stars, 

Their  being  is  lost  in  not  being.7 
505     When  a  wave  strikes  it,  the  world  vanishes  away, 

Then  is  fulfilled  the  text  "It  abounded  not  yesterday."6 

1  Eccles.  xii.  7. 

*  Single  because  each  manifests  one  Divine  Name.     L.    See  couplet  278. 

8  They  all  end  in  the  '  sea  of  Unity.'     L. 

4  It  is  a  sea  of  blood  because  of  the  continual  annihilation  in  it  of  its  waves, 
viz.  phenomena  and  plurality.  L. 

0  Compare  Wisdom  xi.  23  ;  and  Koran,  Sura  XXI.  31 :  "  We  made  every  living 
thing  of  water." 

"  Eeason  i.e.  Universal  Eeason,  the  first  Emanation,  as  in  couplet  204.     L. 

T  The  Koranic  texts  about  the  last  clay  are  applied  by  the  Sufis  to  the  continual 
annihilation  of  phenomena  in  Unity.  L. 

s  "  Verily  the  likeness  of  this  present  life  is  no  other  than  as  water,  which  we  send 
down  from  heaven,  and  wherewith  the  produce  of  the  earth  is  mixed,  of  which  men 
oat  and  cattle  also  until  the  earth  hath  received  its  vesture  and  is  adorned.  The 
inhabitants  thereof  imagine  that  they  have  power  over  the  same,  but  our  command 
cometh  unto  it  by  night  or  by  day,  and  we  render  it  mown,  as  though  yesterday  it 
had  not  abounded  with  fruits." — Koran,  Sura  X.  25, 

H    2 


52  GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 

In  a  moment  this  world  passes  away, 
None  remains  in  the  house  save  "  The  Truth." 
At  that  moment  you  attain  proximity, 
You  stripped  of  '  self  are  '  united  '  to  "  The  Beloved." 
Union  here  means  the  cessation  of  this  dream, 
When  this  dream  passes  away,  it  is  union. 
Say  not  '  the  contingent  outsteps  its  limits,'  ' 
Contingent  becomes  not  necessary,  nor  necessary  contingent. 
510     He  who  is  transcendent  in  spiritual  mysteries, 
Says  not  this,  for  it  is  an  inversion  of  verities. 
0  master  !  you  have  a  thousand  '  processes'  before  you,2 
Go  and  consider  your  own  coming  and  going. 
Of  the  argument  of  part  and  whole  and  the  '  process'  of  man, 
.  I  tell  you  every  whit  both  manifest  and  secret. 


QUESTION  IX. 

What  is  the  union  of  necessary  and  contingent  ? 
What  are  '  near  '  and  '  far,'  '  more'  and  '  less'  ?  3 

ANSWER  IX. 

Hear  of  me  a  discourse  without  '  more'  or  '  less, ' 
It  is  by  nearness  that  you  become  far  from  yourself. 
515     As  Being  is  manifested  in  not  being, 

From  that  too  proceed  '  near'  and  '  far,'  '  more'  and  '  less.' ' 

1  I.e.  not  being.     L. 

2  Nislia.  Lahiji  says  this  includes  the  processes  of  mutda,  coming  or  origin,  ma'asli, 
sustenance,  and  mu'ad,  return  or  going.     Compare  Koran,  Sura  XXIX.  17 :  "  See  how 
Allah  originated  the  creature  world,  and  then  created  a  new  creation." 

3  Union  having  already  been  explained,  the  poet  passes  at  ouce  to  the  explanation 
of  'near'  and  'far.'     "We  are  nearer    to  Him  than   his   neck   vein."  —  Koran, 
Sura  L.  15.     L. 

4  '  More"  of  Being  is  reflected  in  the  man  who  is  nearest  to  "  The  Light."     L. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  53 

He  is  '  near  '  on  whom  '  the  light  is  shed,'  ' 

'  Far '  is  that  not  being  which  is  distant  from  Being  ; 

If  He  makes  to  shine  on  you  a  light  from  Himself, 

It  delivers  you  from  your  own  existence. 

What  profit  to  you  is  there  in  this  non-existent  existence, 

Whence  you  have  now  fear  and  now  hope  ? 

As  man  fears  not  him  whom  he  knows, 

It  is  infants  who  are  frightened  at  shadows. 

520     Fear  remains  not  when  you  have  started  on  your  journey,' 
The  Arab  racer  needs  not  the  whip. 
What  fear  will  you  have  of  the  fires  of  hell, 
When  your  soul  and  body  are  purged  from  existence  ? 
Let  pure  gold  be  burned  in  the  fire, 
If  it  contains  no  alloy,  what  is  there  to  burn  ? 
There  is  no  obstacle  in  your  way  but  jomself, 
But  reflect  well  on  your  own  illusory  existence, 
While  you  are  cloaked  in  this  self  of  yours, 
The  world  is  always  as  a  veil  before  your  eyes. 

525     Then  you  are  the  lowest  part  of  the  circle  of  being, 
Then  are  you  most  opposed  to  the  point  of  unity  ; 3 
The  phenomena  of  the  world  overpower  you,4 
Thence  like  Satan  you  say  "  Who  is  like  unto  me  ?" 
Thence  you  say  "  I  myself  have  free-will," 
"  My  body  is  the  horse  and  my  soul  the  rider," 
"  The  reins  of  the  body  are  in  the  hand  of  the  soul," 
"  The  entire  direction  thereof  is  given  to  me." 
Know  you  not  that  all  this  is  the  road  of  the  Magians,5 

1  Alluding  to  the  Hadis :  "God  formed  the  creation  in  darkness,  then  He  shed  His 
light  thereon,  and  he  whom  it  meets  is  guided  in  the  right  way,  and  he  who  aussea 
it  walketh  in  darkness.", 

•  He  who  has  started  on  the  'journey  to  God '  is  engrossed  in  his  race.     L. 

3  Compare  couplet  324. 

1  All  the  attributes  of  God,  egoism  included,  are  manifested  as  phenomena  in  man. 
Hence  pride,  like  Satan's.  "  I  am  nobler  than  he." — Koran,  Sura  VII.  77. 

5  Alluding  to  the  Jlaclis:  "The  men  of  freewill  are  Guebers."  They  set  up  man's 
will  beside  God's,  like  Ahriman  beside  Ormuzd.  Koran,  Sura  XXII.  17.  "  If  man 


54  GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 

All  these  lies  and  deception  come  from  illusive  existence  ? 
530     How,  0  foolish  man,  can  free-will  appertain 

To  a  person  whose  essence  is  nothingness  ? 

Seeing  that  your  being  is  all  one  with  not  being, 

Say  whence  comes  this  free-will  of  yours  ? 

A  man  whose  real  existence  is  not  of  himself, 

Is  neither  good  nor  evil  in  his  own  essence.1 

Whom  have  you  seen  in  the  whole  world 

Who  ever  once  acquired  pleasure  without  pain  ? 

Who  in  fine  ever  attained  all  his  desires  ? 

Who  continued  ever  at  his  pitch  of  perfection  ?  2 
535     Dignities  are  permanent,  but  men  'of  dignity 

Are  subject  to  the  sway  of  "  The  Truth."    Allah  is  over  all. 

Recognise  the  "  working"  3  of  "  The  Truth"  in  every  place, 

Place  not  foot  beyond  your  own  proper  limits. 

Ask  of  your  own  state  what  this  free-will  is, 

And  thence  know  who  are  the  men  of  free-will. 

Every  man  whose  faith  is  other  than  predestinarian, 

Is  according  to  the  prophet  even  as  a  Gueber. 

Like  as  those  Guebers  speak  of  Yezdan  and  Aherman, 

So  these  ignorant  fools  say  '  I '  and  '  He.' 
540     The  attribution  of  actions  to  us  is  imaginary, 

That  attribution  itself  is  but  a  play  and  a  farce. 

You  existed  not  when  your  actions  were  originated, 

You  were  appointed  to  fulfil  a  certain  purpose.4 

be  a  self-determining  agent,  will  it  not  necessarily  follow  that  there  are  as  many 
first  causes  as  there  are  men  in  the  world  ?" — Toplady,  VI.  31. 

1  Qualities  and  will  flow  from  essence,  and  where  there  is  no  essence  there  are  no 
qualities.     L. 

"  Laliiji  explains  the  argument  to  be  that,  if  man's  will  were  free,  nothing  would 
impede  the  fulfilment  of  all  his  wishes.     Compare  Anwari : 

"  If  destiny  be  not  the  arbiter  of  mundane  affairs, 

"  Wherefore  are  men's  states  contrary  to  their  wishes?" 

E  Alluding  to  the  Hadis  :   "  In  existence  there  is  none  who  works  but  God."     And 
to  Koran,  Sura  LV.  29.     Compare  John  v.  17. 

4  Lahiji  says  this   was  to  reflect  the  being,  qualities,  and  names  of  God   as  a 
polished  mirror,  not  that  man  should  choose  the  actions  most  pleasing  to  himself. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  55 

By  the  uncaused  sovereign  will  of  "  The  Truth," 
By  His  fore-knowledge  giving  absolute  command, 
There  was  predestined,  before  soul  and  body  were, 
For  every  man  his  appointed  work ; 
One  was  obedient  for  seven  hundred  thousand  years,1 
Yet  afterwards  bore  the  collar  of  curses  on  his  neck. 

545     Another  after  his  transgression  beheld  the  pure  light, 
When  he  repented,  he  obtained  the  name  "  Chosen ; "  2 
And,  more  marvellous  still,  it  was  by  Satan's  disobedience 
That  Adam  received  mercy  and  pardon  from  "  The  Truth,"  3 
Whilst  through  Adam's  sin  Satan  was  cursed. 
0  wondrous  actions  of  Thine  without  how  or  why  ! 
The  Divine  Majesty  '  regards  not,'  * 
Exalted  high  above  fanciful  reasonings. 
How  came  it,  0  foolish  man,  that  from  eternity 
This  man  was  to  be  Muhammad,  and  that  Abu  Jahl  ? 5 

550     He  who  speaks  of  how  and  why  in  connection  with  God 
Like  a  polytheist  speaks  unworthily  of  His  Majesty. 
It  becomes  Him  to  ask  how  and  why, 
Cavils  on  the  part  of  His  slaves  are  unbecoming. 
Godship  consists  entirely  in  sovereignty.8 
Causation  is  inapplicable  to  the  acts  of  God, 
Mercy  and  vengeance  befit  Godship  ; 

1  Iblis,  or  Satan. 

2  Adam.     "  Above  all  men  did  God  choose  Adam." — Koran,  Sura  III.  30. 

3  These  are   instances  of  the  inscrutable  nature  of  the  Divine  will,  which  is  not 
determined  by   ascertainable   causes.     Satan's   original   obedience   and   Adam's   dis- 
obedience went  for  naught.     L.     See  Rom.  xi.  33. 

4  Alluding  to  the  Hadis  :  "  These  are  in  heaven,  and  God  regards  not  their  sins  , 
and  these  in  hell,  and  God  regards  not  their  good  works." 

6  Abu  Jahl,  '  the  father  of  folly,'  was  an  inveterate  enemy  of  Muhammad. — 
Koran,  Sura  XXII. 

"  God  was  the  First  Great  Cause,  His  will  the  source  of  all  things,  the  spring  of 
all  motions,  all  events  :  it  could  not  be  frustrated."  This  was  contained  in  the  very 
idea  of  Omnipotence  and  Divine  Felicity,  for  no  perfect  agency  can  be  impeded. 
Aquinas,  cited  in  Mozley,  Augustinian  Doctrine  of  Predestination,  237.  Compare 
Aristotle,  Nicom.  Eth.  VII.  13. 


56  GULSHAN    I   BAZ. 

But  slaveship  lies  in  poverty  and  necessity, 

The  '  honour  '  of  man  lies  in  being  under  compulsion,1 

Not  in  having  a  share  in  free-will. 

555     Man  has  nothing  whatever  of  himself, 

Yet  God  asks  him  concerning  good  and  evil.2 

Man  has  no  free-will,  but  is  under  compulsion: 

Ah,  poor  creature,  seeming  to  be  free,  yet  a  slave  ! 

This  is  not  injustice,  but  true  fore-knowledge  and  justice  ; 

This  is  not  oppression,  but  pure  mercy  and  grace. 

He  has  imposed  on  you  the  law  for  this  cause, 

That  He  has  imparted  to  you  of  His  essence.3 

Since  you  are  impotent  in  the  hands  of  "  The  Truth," 

Abandon  and  forsake  this  self  of  yours. 

560     In  "  The  All"  you  will  obtain  deliverance  from  self, 
In  "  The  Truth  "  you  will  become  rich,  0  Durvesh  ! 4 
Go,  Soul  of  your  father  !  yield  yourself  to  God's  will, 
Resign  yourself  to  the  Divine  fore-ordinance. 


QUESTION  X. 

What  is  that  sea  whose  shore  is  speech  ? 
What  is  that  pearl  which  is  found  in  its  depths  ? 

ANSWER  X. 

Being  is  the  sea,  speech  is  the  shore, 

The  shells  are  letters,  the  pearls  knowledge  of  the  heart.5 

1  "  And  we  have  honoured  the  sons  of  Adam." — Koran,  Sura  XVII.  72. 

-  Another  instance  of  the  inscrutable  nature  of  God's  actions.     L. 

s  See  note  on  couplet  264.  Being  under  constraint  is  a  necessary  consequence  of 
man's  acceptance  of  the  '  burden '  of  displaying  the  Divine  attributes — a  penalty  of 
his  exaltation.  L. 

4  When  '  united  '  with  "  The  Truth  "  you  will  see  the  Divine  will  working  in  your 
true  Self.  L. 

8  Being  is  a  sea  whereof  phenomenal  manifestations  are  the  waves  ;  speech  is  the 
shore,  because  speech,  logos  proforikos,  is  the  differentia  of  man  (animal  rationale), 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  57 

In  every  wave  it  casts  up  a  thousand  royal  pearls 
Of  traditions  and  holy  sayings  and  texts. 
565     Every  moment  a  thousand  waves  rise  out  of  it,1 
Yet  it  never  becomes  less  by  one  drop. 
Knowledge  has  its  being  from  that  sea, 
The  coverings  of  its  pearls  are  voice  and  letters.2 
Since  mysteries  are  here  shown  in  an  allegory,     s 
It  is  necessary  to  have  recourse  to  illustrations. 

ILLUSTRATION. 

I  have  heard  that  in  the  month  Nysan 

The  pearl  oysters  rise  to  the  surface  of  the  sea  of  'Uman. 

From  the  lowest  depths  of  the  sea  they  come  up, 

And  rest  on  the  surface  with  opened  mouths. 
570     The  mist  is  lifted  up  from  the  sea, 

And  descends  in  rain  at  the  command  of  "  The  Truth." 

There  fall  some  drops  into  each  shell's  mouth, 

And  each  mouth  is  shut  as  by  a  hundred  bonds. 

Then  each  shell  descends  into  the  depths  with  full  heart, 

And  each  drop  of  rain  becomes  a  pearl. 

The  diver  goes  down  to  the  depths  of  the  sea, 

And  thence  brings  up  the  glittering  pearls. 

The  shore  is  your  body,  the  sea  is  Being,3 

The  mist  Grace,4  the  rain  knowledge  of  the  Names.8 
575     The  diver  of  this  mighty  sea  is  human  reason, 

Who  holds  a  hundred  pearls  wrapped  in  his  cloth. 

The  heart  is  to  knowledge  as  a  vessel, 

The  shells  of  knowledge  of  the  heart  are  voice  and  letters. 

who  is  the  epitome  of  phenomenal  existence,  and  the  differentia  of  a  class  is  its  limit 
or  boundary  from  other  classes.     Knowledge  of  the  heart=Divine  verities.     L. 

1  Wave  here  means  human  soul  or  reason.     L. 

1  Knowledge  is  only  communicable  by  language.     L. 

8  Shore  was  before  compared  to  speech,  here  to  body,  i.  e.  the  totality  of  man.    L. 

4  Ibiz,  emanation  ;  faiz-ul-kadis,  emanation  of  Divine  grace.— De  Sacy,  Notices 
desMSS.,X.  66. 

5  Compare  Koran,  Sura  II.  29  :    "And  he  taught  Adam  the  names  of  all  things." 

I 


58  GULSHAN    I   EAZ. 

The  soul  is  darting  as  a  lightning  flash,1 

It  bears  these  letters  to  the  hearing  ear. 

Then  break  open  the  shell,  take  out  the  royal  pearl, 

Cast  away  the  husk,  carry  off  the  sweet  kernel. 

Dictionary,  etymology,  syntax  and  accidence 

Are  all  only  the  wrappings  of  letters. 

580     Whoso  devotes  his  life  to  these, 

Has  squandered  his  precious  life  on  trifling. 

From  his  nut  he  gets  only  the  dry  husk, 

He  finds  no  kernel  unless  he  breaks  the  husk. 

Nevertheless  without  a  husk  the  kernel  ripens  not, 

From  external  knowledge  grows  the  sweet  knowledge  of  faith. 

0  soul  of  my  brother,  hearken  to  my  counsel ! 

With  heart  and  soul  strive  for  the  knowledge  of  the  faith. 

For  the  '  knower '  gains  high  place  in  both  worlds, 

Though  he  be  humble,  yet  by  this  is  he  exalted. 

5S5     An  action  which  proceeds  from  good  '  states '  of  heart 

Is  much  better  than  this  mere  knowledge  of  the  '  word.' 2 

But  an  action  which  proceeds  from  water  and  clay 3 

Equals  not  this  knowledge,  for  this  is  the  action  of  the  heart. 

See  what  a  difference  there  is  between  body  and  soul ; 

You  may  take  one  as  the  east,  the  other  as  the  west. 

Hence  learn  at  full  how  bodily  actions 4 

Are  related  to  knowledge  of  the  word  as  this  knowledge  to  'states.' 

Knowledge  is  not  that  which  loves  the  world, 

Which  has  the  form,  but  is  void  of  the  reality. 

590     Knowledge  is  never  coupled  with  lust  of  the  world, 

1  Nafs  has  here  the  double  sense  of  soul  and  wind,  blowing  the  pearl-oysters  to 
the  shore.  L. 

1  The  end  of  knowledge  is  action  or  practice,  and  practice  of  virtuous  acts  leads 
to  the  acquirement  of  good  habits,  '  states '  or  knowledge  of  heart,  or  ecstatic 
states.  L. 

'  /.  e.  from  the  body,  mere  bodily  acts.     L. 

*  Bodily  actions  are  to  knowledge  of  the  word  or  of  the  faith  or  external  science, 
'Urn  ul  yakin,  as  body  is  to  soul ;  and  again  knowledge  of  the  word  is  to  '  states  '  or 
knowledge  of  heart,  'ayn  ul  yakin,  as  bodily  actions  to  knowledge  of  the  word.  L. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  59 

If  you  desire  the  angel,  cast  out  the  dog. 
Knowledge  of  faith  springs  from  angelic  virtues, 
It  enters  not  a  heart  with  a  dog's  nature. 
Thus  runs  the  saying  of  "  the  Chosen,"  l 
Mark  it  well,  for  verily  it  is  so. 
When  form  is  contained  in  the  house, 
The  angels  enter  it  not  perforce. 
Go,  cleanse  the  face  of  the  tablets  of  your  heart, 
That  an  angel  may  make  his  abode  with  you. 
595     Gain  from  him  the  knowledge  that  is  your  heritage, 
Begin  to  till  your  field  for  the  next  world's  harvest. 
Bead  the  books  of  "  The  Truth  " — your  soul  and  the  heavens,2 
Be  adorned  with  the  principle 3  of  all  the  virtues. 

RULE. 
ON  VIRTUES  AND  GOOD  DISPOSITIONS. 

The  principles  of  a  good  character  are  equity, 
And  thereafter  wisdom,  temperance,  courage. 
He  who  is  endued  with  all  these  four 
Is  a  sage  perfect  in  thought  and  deed.4 
His  soul  and  heart  are  well  informed  with  wisdom, 
He  is  neither  over  cunning  nor  a  fool.5 
600     By  temperance  his  appetites  are  subdued, 


1  Alluding  to  the  Hadis,  "An  angel  enters  not  a  house  where  there  are  dogs  or 
forms." 

8  Koran,  Sura  XLI.  53 :  "  We  will  show  them  our  signs  in  the  quarters  of  the 
heavens,  and  in  their  own  souls."  See  a  passage  from  Kant  quoted  in  Hamilton's 
Metaphysics,  I.  38  : — "  Two  things  there  are  which  the  oftener  and  the  more  stead- 
fastly we  consider  them,  fill  the  mind  with  an  ever-new  and  an  ever-increasing  admira- 
tion and  reverence, — the  starry  heaven  above,  and  the  moral  law  within." 

3  I.e.,  equipoise  or  the  mean. 

4  "The  sage  is  he  who  knows  things  as  they  are  (speculative  wisdom),  and  acts 
as  he  ought  (practical  wisdom)." — Aklilak-i-Nasiri,  Preface. 

6  This  Aristotelian  doctrine  of  the  '  mean  '  is  found  in  the  AJchlak-i-Nasiri,  I.  4, 
and  in  the  AMilak-i-Jalali,  I.  4,  where  also  occurs  the  comparison  with  the  bridge, 
See  Esdras,  ii.  7. 

i  2 


60  GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 

Intemperance  and  insensibility  '  alike  are  banished. 

The  courageous  man  is  pure  from  abjectness  and  from  boasting, 

His  nature  is  exempt  from  cowardice  and  rashness. 

Equity  is  as  the  garment  of  his  nature, 

He  is  void  of  injustice,  thus  his  character  is  good. 

All  the  virtues  lie  in  the  mean, 

Which  is  alike  removed  from  excess  and  defect. 

The  mean  is  as  the  '  narrow  ivay,' 2 

On  either  side  yawns  hell's  bottomless  pit. 
605     In  fineness  and  sharpness  as  a  sword, 

One  may  not  turn  round  nor  stand  on  it  long. 

Since  equity  has  only  one  opposite  vice, 

The  total  number  of  opposite  vices  is  seven. 

Beneath  each  number  is  hidden  a  mystery, 

For  this  cause  has  hell  seven  gates.3 

Like  as  hell  is  prepared  for  iniquity, 

Heaven  is  the  place  always  appointed  for  equity. 

Light  and  mercy  are  the  recompense  of  equity, 

Darkness  and  cursing  the  requital  of  iniquity. 
610     Goodness  is  made  manifest  in  equity, 

Equipoise  in  a  body  is  its  summit  of  perfection. 

Since  a  compound  is  as  one  entity, 

It  is  remote  from  its  parts  in  its  nature  and  differentia.4 

It  becomes  like  to  a  simple  essence, 

And  between  it  and  simple  essence  there  is  a  bond  ; 5 

1  KhamaA,  '  letting  the  fire  out,'  '  insensibility,'  anaesthesia  (Nicom.  Eth.,  III.  10), 
Akhlak-i-Nasiri,  I.  part  II.,  chapter  5. 

8  This  refers  to  the  bridge  over  hell.     Compare  couplet  382,  note. 

3  Koran,  Sura  XV.  44  : — "  Hell  hath  seven  gates."     So  in  the  Midrash. — Rodwell 
sub  loco. 

4  Lahiji  says  fire,  water,  earth,  and  air,  the  four  elements  of  which  bodies  are  com- 
pounded, lose    their  individual    qualities   in   the  compound    bodies,    and    equipoise 
(equity)  is  what  unites  them  into  homogeneous  compounds.      See    Grant,   Nico- 
machaan  Ethics,  I.  204. 

5  In  Akhlalc-i-Jalali,  I.  5,  it  is  said  :• — "  The  connection  of  soul  with  body  is  by 
means  of  a  perfect  proportion  or  equipoise  existing  between  the  elementary  particles, 
wherefore  the  dissolution  of  that  proportion  effects  the  severance  of  that  connection, 


GUL8HAN   I    RAZ.  61 

Not  that  bond  which  subsists  bet  ween  the  couipoundand  its  parts, 
(For  spirit  is  free  from  the  attributes  of  corporeity,) 
But  when  water  and  clay  are  purified  altogether,1 
Spirit  is  added  to  them  by  "  The  Truth."  2 
615     When  the  parts,  to  wit,  the  elements  attain  equilibrium, 
The  beams  of  the  spirit  world  fall  upon  them. 
The  Spirit's  rays  shining  on  the  body  at  the  time  of  equilibrium, 
Are  like  the  rays  of  the  sun  shining  upon  the  earth. 

ILLUSTRATION." 

Though  the  sun  abides  in  the  fourth  heaven, 
Yet  his  rays  are  the  light  which  rule  the  earth. 
The  elementary  temperaments  exist  not  in  the  sun, 
The  stars  are  not  hot  or  cold,  dry  or  moist. 
Yet  by  him  the  elements  are  made  warm  or  cold, 
White,  red,  green,  pink  or  yellow. 
620     His  command  goes  forth  as  that  of  a  just  prince, 

One  cannot  say  whether  it  is  without  or  within  the  elements. 

When  the  elements  are  adjusted  in  equipoise, 

The  Soul  is,  as  it  were,  enamoured  of  their  beauty, 

A  mystical  marriage  comes  to  pass  according  to  the  right  faith'* 

The  world  is  the  dowry  given  to  man  by  the  Universal  Soul.5 

Of  this  marriage  the  issue  is  eloquence, 

(i.e.  death)."     The  same  doctrine  is  found  in  Al  Farabi,  'Ayun-ul-Masail,  chapter 
xix.     See  Schmolders,  Documenta,  p.  114,  and  Milton's  Paradise  Lost,  V.  470. 
1  I.  e.  man's  body.     L. 

*  Koran,  Sura  XV.  29  : — "We  breathed  into  him  of  our  spirit."  Equipoise  of  body 
is  what  attracts  this  increment  of  spirit.     L. 

*  This  explains  how  the  connection  of  spirit  with  body  is  not  by  way  of  a  compound, 
but  by  way  of  nexus,  spirit  being  attached  ab  extra  to  body.     L.     Compare  Tauler, 
quoted  in  Vaughan,  I.  62  :  "  God  pours  himself  out  into  our  spirit,  as  the  sun  rays 
forth  its  natural  light  into  the  air,  and  fills  it  with  sunshine,  so  that  no  eye  can  tell 
the  difference  between  the  sunshine  and  the  air.     If  the  union  of  the  sun  and  air 
cannot  be  distinguished,  how  far  less  this  divine  union  of  the  created  body  and 
uncreated  spirit." 

4  Koran,  Sura  IX.  36:  "This  is  the  right  faith."      The  marriage  is   between 
reasonable  soul,  nafs-i-natika,  the  'essence  of  man,'  and  body,  the  'form  of  man.'     L. 
'  Universal  Soul  is  the  compendium  of  all  particular  souls.     L. 


62  GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 

Knowledge,  language,  virtue,  earthly  beauty. 

Heavenly  beauty '  descends  from  the  unseen  world, 

Descends  like  some  licentious  reveller, 
625     Sets  up  its  flag  in  the  strong  city  of  earthly  beauty, 

Throws  into  confusion  all  the  world's  array. 

Now  riding  royally  on  the  steed  of  comeliness, 

Now  brandishing  the  keen  sword-blade  of  language. 

When  beheld  in  a  person  it  is  called  beauty, 

And  when  heard  in  speech  eloquence.2 

Saints,  kings,  durveshes,  apostles, 

All  alike  bow  down  and  own  its  sway. 

What  is  this  charm  in  the  beauty  of  a  fair  face  ? 3 

It  is  not  merely  earthly  beauty,  say  what  is  it  ? 4 
630     That  heart  ravishment  can  come  only  from  "  The  Truth," 

For  there  is  no  partner  in  Divine  agency.5 

How  can  it  be  lust  which  ravishes  men's  hearts  ? 

For  "  The  Truth  "  now  and  again  appears  as  evil.6 

Confess  the  '  working  '  of  "  The  Truth  "  in  every  place,7 

Set  not  foot  beyond  your  own  limits. 

Know  "  The  Truth"  in  the  garb  of  good  is  the  true  faith, 

"  The  Truth  "  in  the  garb  of  evil  is  the  work  of  Satan.8 

1  Mulakat,  heavenly,  which  is  the  motive  power  of  earthly  beauty.  Lahiji  says  it  is 
a  spark  from  the  light  of  Unity,  and  is  one  though  manifested  in  various  theatres. 

1  "  In  truth  there  is  one  and  the  same  principle,  which,  if  prevailing  in  the 
attempered  elementary  particles  is  equipoise  of  temperament,  if  produced  in  musical 
tones  is  excellent  and  delightful  intervals,  if  apparent  in  the  gestures  is  grace,  if  found 
in  language  is  eloquence,  if  produced  in  the  human  limbs  is  beauty,  if  in  the  qualities 
of  the  soul  equity.  Of  this  principle  the  Soul  is  enamoured  and  in  search,  whatever 
form  it  may  take,  whatever  dress  assume." — Akhlak-i-Jalali,  I.  5.  This  idea  comes 
from  Plato.  See  Jowett's  Plato,  III.  138. 

3  Alluding  to  Koran,  Sura  XXXIII.  52  :— "  Though  their  beauty  charm  thee." 

*  Compare  Sadi's  Diwan: 

"  I  know  not  what  sort  of  shrine  is  the  brow  of  the  fair, 
For  if  an  atheist  beholds  it,  he  presently  falls  to  prayer." 

5  It  is  Divine  beauty  displayed  in  earthly  beauties  which  attracts  all  hearts.     L. 

0  Evil,  latil,  vain,  false,  '  what  is  without  God.' 

7  See  note  on  couplet  673. 

8  Lahiji  says  legal  good  and  evil  are  both  manifestations  of  "  The  Truth,"  because 


GULSHAN    I   BAZ.  63 

QUESTION  XI. 

What  is  that  part  which  is  greater  than  its  whole  ? 
What  is  the  way  to  find  that  part  ? 

ANSWER  XI. 

635     Know  Absolute  Being  is  that  part  which  is  greater  than  its 
whole, 

The  whole  is  actual  being,  which  is  the  universe.1 

Actual  being  bears  plurality  on  its  outside,2 

For  it  contains  unity  only  inwardly. 

Every  actual  being  is  manifested  through  plurality, 

For  this  is  as  a  veil  of  its  unity  part. 

Though  this  whole  is  to  outward  aspect  many, 

It  is  smaller  in  quantity  than  its  own  part.3 

But  in  fine  actual  existence  is  not  Necessary, 

For  actual  existence  is  a  vassal  of  Necessary  Being. 
640     This  whole  has  not  real  absolute  being, 

For  it  is  as  a  contingent  accident  of  Reality. 

The  existence  of  this  whole  is  both  plural  and  single, 

And  it  appears  as  plural  through  its  plural  aspect. 

"  There  is  no  worker  in  creation  save  Allah,"  but  yet  evil  comes  not  from  God  but 
from  'other,'  i.e.  notbeing.  See  couplet  871.  This  resembles  the  view  of  Augustine 
and  Aquinas,  viz.  that  evil  is  a  negation,  a  departure  from  God,  the  source  and  sum 
of  all  existence  (Mozley,  Augustinian  doctrine  of  Predestination,  253).  The  Koran 
is  in  one  department  of  its  language  necessitarian,  and  in  another  department  it  uses 
the  language  of  free-will.  Compare  Sura  XCI.  8.  with  IV.  81.  At  one  time  it 
says  God  originates  everything,  evil  included,  at  another  it  ascribes  evil  to  man's 
will  or  Satan's.  (See  Mozley,  ib.,  p.  30.) 

1  Lahiji  says,  "Absolute  Being,  wajud,  by  the  individualization,  tasTiakkas,  and 
phenomenalization,  ta'ayyun,  which  occur  to  it,  gets  the  name  olmaujvd,  actual  being, 
and  therefore  wajud  is  a  part  of  every  maujud ;  for  maujud  is  wajud  plus  ta'ayyun. — 
Absolute  Being  again  is  greater  than  its  whole  because  it  contains  all  maujud." 

*  I.e.,  on  its  phenomenal  side.     Compare  couplet  451. 

8  Because  Absolute  Being  is  the  summum  genus  embracing  all  species  of  actual 
beings  beneath  it.  L.  The  Neo  Platonists  and  Dionysius  the  pseudo  Arcopagite 
held  a  similar  view. — Vaughan,  I.  96. 


64  GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 

Actual  being  is  contingent,  for  it  is  a  conjunction,1 

The  contingent  is  ever  hastening  of  itself  to  not  being. 

In  every  part  of  this  whole,  as  it  becomes  non-existent, 

This  whole  itself  is  becoming  non-existent  on  its  contingent  side. 

The  world  is  this  whole,  and  in  every  '  twinkling  of  an  eye,' 

It  becomes  non-existent  and  "  endures  not  two  moments." 

645     Then  over  again  another  world  is  produced, 

Every  moment  a  new  heaven  and  a  new  earth.2 
Every  moment  it  is  a  youth  and  an  old  man, 
Every  moment  it  is  gathered  and  dispersed. 
Things  remain  not  in  it  two  moments, 
The  same  moment  they  perish,  they  are  born  again. 
But  this  is  not  the  great  resurrection  day,8 
This  is  the  day  of  works,  that  the  '  day  of  faith.' 
Between  this  and  that  is  a  great  difference,  Beware  ! 
In  ignorance  make  not  yourself  entangled. 

650     Open  your  eyes  to  see  amplification  and  epitome,4 
Behold  hour,  day,  month  and  year. 

ILLUSTRATION. 

If  you  desire  to  understand  this  mystery, 
Consider  how  you  also  have  both  life  and  death. 
Of  every  thing  in  the  world  above  or  below s 
An  exemplar  is  set  forth  in  your  soul  and  body. 
Like  you  the  world  is  a  specific  person, 
You  are  to  it  a  soul,  and  it  is  a  body  to  you. 

1  Conjunction,  ijtama'i,  coalescence.     A  compound  which  contains  a  perishable 
part  is  dissolved  and  perishes  when  that  part  perishes.     L. 

2  The  world  is  changed  in  place,  time,  and  quality  every  moment.     Every  moment 
it  is  clothed  with  fresh  effluxes  of  Divine  manifestations.     L. 

3  Tamat  i  Tcubra,  literally  the  great  overthrow  or  calamity,  <S«mLXXIX.34  ;  also 
called  yaum  i  din,  '  day  of  faith,'  Sura  I.  4. 

*  The  day  of  judgment  is  an  amplification  of  the  death  and  resurrection  of  phe- 
nomena occurring  every  moment,  just  as  a  year  is  of  a  day.     L. 
6  /.  e.,  spirits  and  material  elements.     L. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  65 

Death  occurs  to  man  in  three  sorts ; l 

The  one  every  moment  is  that  due  to  his  nature  ; 2 
655     Of  the  other  two,  know  one  is  the  death  of  his  will, 

The  third  death  is  that  compulsory  on  him. 

And  as  death  and  life  answer  to  one  another, 

His  life  is  of  three  sorts  in  three  stages.8 

The  world  has  not  the  death  of  will, 

For  you  alone  of  all  creatures  have  this  death. 

But  every  moment  the  world  is  changed, 

And  its  last  state  becomes  like  to  its  first. 

And  whatever  will  be  seen  in  the  world  at  the  last  day, 

Will  be  also  seen  in  you  in  your  death  agony. 
660     Your  body  is  as  earth,  your  head  as  heaven, 

Your  senses  as  stars,  your  soul  as  the  sun. 

Your  bones  are  as  the  mountains,  for  they  are  hard, 

Your  hair  as  plants,  and  your  limbs  as  trees. 

On  the  day  of  death  your  body  with  contrition 

Will  '  tremble  '  like  the  earth  on  the  day  of  doom.4 

Brain  will  be  confounded  and  soul  darkened, 

Your  senses  will  become  dim  like  the  stars,5 

Your  pores  will  run  with  sweat  like  the  rivers, 

You  will.be  drowned  therein  as  a  helpless  log. 
665     In  your  death  agony,  0  wretched  man  ! 

Your  bones  will  become  "  soft  as  dyed  wool,"  ° 

Leg  will  be  twisted  with  leg,7 

1  Lahiji  says: — The  first  death  is  that  which  every  existing  thing  dies,  and  is 
every  moment  born  again ;    the  second  the  ascetic  death  to  the  world,  according  to 
the  text,  "Die  before  you  die;  "  and  the  third  the  separation  of  soul  and  body.     The 
first   death   seems   to  be  the  Heracleitean  doctrine  of  the  flux   of  all  things  (rei 
panto).    Heracleitus  is  quoted  in  a  passage  of  Jelal-ud-din  Kumi,  given  in  Lumsden's 
Persian  Grammar,  II.  323. 

2  /.  e.,  necessitated  by  the  contingent  phenomenal  element  in  him.     L. 
*  One  in  this  world,  one  in  the  world  to  come,  another  in  hades.     L. 

4  Koran,  Sura  XCIX.  1  :  "  The  earth  shall  tremble  with  her  trembling." 

5  Koran,  Sura  LXXXI.  2. 
0  Koran,  Sura  CI.  4. 

'  Koran,  Sura  LXXV.  29. 

K 


66  GULSHAN    I    EAZ. 

Every  friend  will  be  separated  from  his  fellow.1 

And  when  spirit  is  wholly  separated  from  body, 

Your  land  will  be  "a  level  plain,  without  hills  or  valleys."2 

In  like  manner  will  be  the  state  of  the  world, 

Which  you  behold  in  yourself  at  that  hour. 

Permanence  belongs  to  "  The  Truth,"  all  else  is  fleeting, 

Its  whole  fabric  is  set  forth  in  the  "  seven  chapters."  s 

670     Which  say  "  all  that  is  on  earth  is  transitory,"  4 
And  show  forth  "  the  new  creation."  5 
Again  the  constant  annihilation  and  renovation  of  the  two 

worlds 

Are  like  the  creation  and  resurrection  of  the  sons  of  Adam. 
Continually  is  creation  born  again  in  a  new  creation, 
Though  the  duration  of  its  life  seems  long.6 
Continually  the  overflowing  bounty  of  "  The  Truth  " 
Is  being  revealed  in  His  continual  "  working."  7 
On  this  side  the  world  is  renewed  and  perfected, 
On  that  side  it  is  every  moment  annihilated.8 

675     But  when  the  fashion  of  this  world  passes  away, 
All  will  be  everlasting  in  the  world  to  come. 
For  every  object  which  you  see  of  necessity 
Contains  two  worlds,  form  and  reality. 
The  "  union  "  of  the  first  is  true  separation, 
The  other  is  what  endures  for  ever  in  Allah." 
Permanence  is  a  name  proper  to  Necessary  Being, 
But  yet  the  place  where  Being  dwells  is  also  permanent,10 

Koran,  Sura  LXX  :  "  A  friend  shall  not  ask  of  a  friend." 

Koran,  Sura  XX.  105. 

See  note  on  couplet  207. 

Koran,  Sura  LV.  26. 

Koran,  Sura  L.  14.  and  XXIX.  17.     Compare  Rev.  xxi.  1.  5. 

Owing  to  the  rapidity  of  the  phenomenal  effluxes  from  Being,  the  phenomenal  life 
of  the  creature  world  seems  continuous.     L. 

'  "  He  is  working  every  day." — Koran,  Sura  LV.  29.     See  John  v.  17. 
8  This  side=God;  that  side  the  phenomenal  contingent.     L. 
'  Koran,  Sura  XVI.  98. 
10  I.  e.,  so  long  as  Being  lodges  in  it.     L. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  67 

When  the  manifestors  are  suitable  to  what  is  manifested, 
In  this  world  is  seen  the  world  to  come.1 
680    Whatsoever  exists  in  potentiality  in  this  "house," 
Will  come  into  actuality  in  the  world  to  come.2 

RULE." 

Whatever  action  once  proceeds  from  you, 
If  you  repeat  it  several  times,  you  become  master  of  it. 
Every  time  you  repeat  it,  be  it  gain  or  loss, 
One  of  these  two  becomes  implanted  in  your  soul. 
By  habit  dispositions  become  habitual, 
By  length  of  time  fruits  gain  their  savour. 
By  habitual  practice  men  learn  their  trades, 
By  habit  they  learn  to  collect  their  thoughts. 
685     All  man's  ingrained  actions  and  sayings 
Will  be  made  manifest  at  the  last  day.4 
When  you  are  stripped  of  the  garment  of  this  body,5 
All  your  vices  and  virtues  will  at  once  be  shown. 
A  body  you  will  have,  but  one  free  from  stain,6 
In  it  will  be  reflected  forms  as  in  pure  water. 
All  secrets  will  be  revealed  in  that  place, 
Read  the  text  "All  secrets  shall  be  searched  out."  7 

1  When  the  contingent  mirrors  of  Divine  effluxes  are  polished  and  fit  to  reflect  the 
"Manifested,"  then  the  invisible  is  seen  in  the  visible  world.  L. 

-  Here  is   another  reproduction   of  the  Aristotelian  doctrines  of  Dynamis  and 
Energeia,  and  of  habits. 

3  This  Rule  explains  how  mental  qualities  will  in  the  world  to  come  be  embodied 
in  forms  or  bodies  suitable  to  evidence  and  manifest  them  properly.     When  Divine 
names  are  manifested  in  suitable  mirrors  these  mirrors  are  everlasting.     L. 

4  Dispositions,  freed  from  the  stain  of  the  phenomenal,  will  then  be  reflected  in 
perfect  mirrors.     L. 

*  Compare  Plato,  Gorgias  :  "  And,  in  a  word,  whatever  was  the  habit  of  the  body 

during  life  would  be  distinguishable  after  death When  the  man  is  stripped  of 

his  body,  all  the  natural  or  acquired  affections  of  the  soul  are  laid  open  to  view." — 
Jowett's  Plato,  III.  123.     See  Rev.  xxii.  11. 

6  See  1  Cor.  xv.  44.     In  the  Shark  maklitassar  it  is  said,  soul  cannot  be  without 
a  body,  and  after  death  it  has  an  "  acquired  body,"  a  shadowy  figure. 

7  Koran,  Sura  LXXXVI.  9. 

K   2 


68  GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 

Again,  suitably  to  that  special  world 

Your  dispositions  will  be  embodied  and  personified. 

690     Just  as  in  this  world  from  the  potentialities  of  elements 
The  three  kingdoms  of  nature  are  produced.1 
So  all  your  dispositions  in  the  world  of  spirits 
Will  be  made  manifest  now  as  lights,  now  as  fires.2 
Phenomenal  limitations  will  be  removed  from  Being, 
Nor  height  nor  depth  will  remain  in  sight.8 
The  death  of  the  body  will  abide  not  in  the  '  house  of  life,'  * 
External  form  and  soul  will  appear  as  one  stainless  entity. 
Your  head,  foot  and  eye  will  become  as  a  heart, 
Pure  from  the  stain  of  earthly  form. 

695     Then  the  light  of  "  The  Truth  "  will  illuminate  you, 
You  will  behold  face  to  face  "  The  Truth"  Most  High. 
I  know  not  what  intoxication  will  possess  you, 
You  will  scatter  in  confusion  the  two  worlds. 
Consider  what  means  "  their  Lord  gives  them  to  drink,"  5 
And  what  is  "pure  ivine  "  !     It  is  purification  from  self. 
What  a  draught,  what  lusciousness,  what  sweetness  ! 
What  bliss,  what  ecstasy,  what  intoxication  ! 
0  happy  moment  when  we  shall  quit  our  "  selves  "  ! 
When  we  shall  be  most  rich  in  utterest  poverty  ! 8 

700     Without  faith  or  reason,  or  piety  or  perception, 

Bowed  down  in  the  dust,  drunken  and  beside  ourselves  ! 

1  Lahiji,  quoting  from  the  Hakk  ul  YaJcin,  says  potentialities  of  origin,  mubda, 
come  into  actuality  in  the  present  life,  m'aash ;  e.g.  horn,  the  potentialities  of  the 
elements  come  forth  minerals,  animals  and  men;  and  so  the  inner  potentialities  acquired 
by  men  in  this  world,  m'aash,  are  developed  by  habit  into  actuality  and  evidence 
in  the  next  world,  mu'ad,  and  there  find  fit  mirrors  or  forms  to  represent  them. 

1  /.  e.  heaven  and  hell. 

2  Rom.  viii.  39. 

4  Koran,  Sura  XXIX.  64  :  "  Verily  the  future  house  is  life  indeed."  Lahiji  says 
that  '  knowers  '  attain  this  stage  in  the  present  life. 

*  "  And  their  Lord  shall  give  them  to  drink  of  a  most  pure  wine." — Koran,  Sura 
LXXVI.  21. 

'  Poor,  i.  e.  by  effacing  self,  and  rich  by  union  with  "  The  Truth."     L. 


GULSHAN    I    EAZ.  69 

Of  what  account  then  will  be  paradise  and  houris  ?  ] 
For  no  stranger  finds  entrance  to  that  secret  chamber. 
When  I  have  seen  this  vision,  and  drunk  of  this  cup, 
I  know  not  what  will  come  to  pass  thereafter. 
Nay,  after  all  intoxication  comes  headache,2 
This  thought  again  drowns  my  soul  in  blood. 


QUESTION  XII. 

How  are  eternal  and  temporal  separate,3 
That  one  is  the  world,  and  the  other  God  ? 

ANSWER  XII. 

705     Eternal  and  temporal  are  not  separate  from  one  another. 

For  in  that  Being  this  non-existent  has  its  being. 

The  first  is  all  in  all,  the  other  is  like  the  'Anka,4 

Save  "The  Truth"  no  names  have  things  answering  to  them. 

Not  being  to  become  existent — this  is  impossible, 

But  real  Being  in  point  of  existence  is  imperishable. 

Neither  does  this  become  that,  nor  that  this. 

All  difficulties  are  now  plain  before  you  ; 

The  whole  world  is  merely  an  imaginary  thing, 

It  is  like  one  point  whirled  round  in  a  circle. 
710     Go  !  whirl  round  a  single  spark  of  fire, 

And  from  its  quick  motion  you  will  see  a  circle. 

1  These  all  partake  of  the  phenomenal,  and  are  external  to  real  Unity  and  Unifica- 
tion, tauhid.     Lahiji  cites  : 

"  While  heaven  and  hell  stand  in  your  way, 

How  is  your  soul  cognizant  of  this  mystery  ?  " 
See  couplet  338. 

2  States  of  ecstasy  in  this  life  are  only  temporary,  and  are  followed  by  the  reappear- 
ance of  veils  and  phenomena.     L. 

3  Kadm.     The  '  ancient  of  days,'  the  self-existent,  the  Being  who  is  first  and  not 
preceded  by  another.     Das  Ur,  usually  opposed  to  'adm.     Tholuck,  Ssufismus,  194. 

4  A  fabulous  bird  said  to  be  "  known  by  name,  but  unknown  in  the  body."     Like 
it,  the  temporal  is  an  empty  name.     L. 


70 


715 


GULSHAN    I   BAZ. 

Though  one  be  counted  again  and  again,1 

Yet  surely  one  becomes  not  many  by  this  counting. 

Cast  away  the  saying  "  What  is  other  than  Allah  " 

By  your  own  reason  separate  that  from  this. 

How  can  you  doubt  that  this  is  a  dream  ?  2 

For  duality  by  the  side  of  unity  is  a  pure  delusion. 

Not  being  is  single  like  being, 

All  plurality  proceeds  from  attribution.* 

The  manifestation  of  differences  and  plurality  of  things 

Proceed  from  the  chameleon  contingent.4 

Since  the  Being  in  all  of  them  is  One,' 

They  aU  bear  witness  to  the  unity  of  "  The  Truth." 


QUESTION  XIII. 

What  means  the  mystic  by  those  expressions  of  his  8 
What  does  he  indicate  by  "  eye  "  and  "  lip  ?" 
What  seeks  he  by  "  cheek,"  "  curl,"  "  down,"  and  "mole  ?" 
He,  to  wit,  who  is  in  "  stations  "  and  "  states  ?"' 

ANSWER  XIII. 

Whatsoever  is  seen  in  this  visible  world, 


1  Compare  the  saying  of  Mansur  Hallaj :    "  The  counting  of  Unity  makes   the 
numbers  of  Unity." 

2  I.e.  this  temporal. 

3  I.e.  attribution  of  Being  in  its  various  aspects  and  '  names '  to  Not  Being.     L. 
*  Chameleon  contingent  means  'at/an  i  sabita.     See  note  on  couplet  273. 

5  Each  reflects  one  special  name  according  to  its  capacity.    L.     See  couplet  278. 

0  Mystic,  mard  i  ma'niy.  He  who  turns  his  face  from  the  world  of  forms  to  that  of 
verity,  and  holds  intuitive  certainty.  L.  Ma'niy,  interior  rei  conditio.  Freytag. 

'  See  Istilahat  us  Sufiah,  p.  35  :  "Hal,  '  state,'  is  that  which  occurs  to  the  heart 
spontaneously  and  without  effort,  like  grief  or  fear,  or  expansion  or  cheerfulness,  or 
desire  or  joy,  and  which  ceases  as  soon  as  the  natural  dispositions  of  the  soul  manifest 
themselves,  without  being  followed  by  similar  states,  for  if  a  state  becomes  predo- 
minant, it  is  called  mukam,  '  station. '"  This  definition  is  evidently  derived  from 
Aristotle's  account  of  enertjeia  and  Jiexis.  "  And,  in  a  word,  from  like  energies  arise 
habits." — Nicom.  Eth.  II.  1,  7.  The  Sufis  applied  the  words  to  ecstatic  states.  See 
couplet  585. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  71 

Is  as  a  reflection  from  the  sun  of  that  world. 
720     The  world  is  as  curl,  down,  mole  and  brow, 

For  everything  in  its  own  place  is  beautiful. 

The  epiphany  is  now  in  beauty,  now  in  majesty,1 

Cheek  and  curl  are  the  similitudes  of  those  verities. 

The  attributes  of  "  The  Truth  "  are  mercy  and  vengeance, 

Cheek  and  curl  of  fair  ones  are  types  of  these  two. 

When  these  words  are  heard  by  the  sensual  ear, 

At  first  they  denote  objects  of  sense. 

The  spiritual  world  is  infinite, 

How  can  finite  words  attain  to  it  ? 2 
725     How  can  the  mysteries  beheld  in  ecstatic  vision 

Be  interpreted  by  spoken  words  ? 

When  mystics  treat  of  these  mysteries, 

They  interpret  them  by  types. 

For  objects  of  sense  are  as  shadows  of  that  world,3 

And  this  world  is  as  an  infant,  and  that  as  the  nurse, 

I  believe  that  these  words  were  at  first  assigned 

To  those  mysteries  in  their  original  usage. 

They  were  afterwards  assigned  to  objects  of  sense  by  usage  of 
the  vulgar 

(For  what  know  the  vulgar  of  these  mysteries  ?) 
730     And  when  reason  turned  its  glance  on  the  world, 

It  transferred  some  words  from  that  place.4 

The  wise  man  has  regard  to  analogy, 

When  he  turns  his  mind  to  words  and  mysteries. 

Although  perfect  analogies  are  unattainable, 

Nevertheless  continue  steadfast  in  seeking  them. 

1  Koran,  Sura  LV.  27  :  "  But  the  face  of  thy  Lord  shall  endure,  clothed  with 
beauty  and  (terrible)  majesty,"  i.e.jamal  and  jalal.     See  note  on  couplet  633. 
"  Compare  couplet  54. 
'  See  Milton's  Paradise  Lost,  V.  574  : 

"  What  if  earth 

Be  but  the  shadow  of  heaven,  and  things  therein 
Each  to  other  like,  more  than  on  earth  is  thought  ?  " 
*  I.e.  to  sensible  objects  from  spiritual     L. 


72  GULSHAN    I   EAZ. 

In  this  matter  none  can  judge  you, 

For  there  is  no  leader  of  the  sect  here  save  "  The  Truth."1 
Yet  so  long  as  you  retain  yourself,  Beware  !  Beware ! 
And  observe  the  expressions  used  in  the  law. 
735     The  license  of  mystics  is  in  three  "  states,"3 

Annihilation,  intoxication,  and  the  fever  of  love. 

All  who  experience  these  three  "  states  " 

Know  the  use  of  these  words  and  their  meanings. 

But  if  you  experience  not  these  "  states  " 

Be  not  an  ignorant  infidel  blindly  repeating  them.3 

These  mystic  "  states  "  are  not  mere  illusions, 

All  men  reach  not  the  mysteries  of  the  mystic  path. 

0  friend,  vain  babbling  proceeds  not  from  men  of  truth, 
To  know  these  states  requires  either  revelation  or  faith.4 

740     I  have  explained  the  usage  of  words  and  their  meanings 
To  you  in  brief,  and  if  you  attend  you  will  understand. 
In  applying  them  look  to  their  final  intent, 
And  regard  all  the  attributes  of  each. 
Use  them  in  comparisons  in  manner  proper  thereto, 
Carefully  abstain  from  applying  them  otherwise. 
Now  that  this  rule  is  well  established, 

1  will  show  you  more  of  these  types. 

INDICATION 
OF  THE  EYE  AND  THE  LIP. 

See  what  proceeds  from  the  eye  and  the  lip, 

1  Because  these  mysteries  are  apprehended  only  in  ecstatic  states.  L.  Compare 
1  Cor.  ii.  15 :  "  He  that  is  spiritual  judgeth  all  things,  yet  he  himself  is  judged 
of  no  man." 

*  I.  e.,  when  mystics  are  beside  themselves,  and  powerless  to  control  their  expres- 
sions. L.     Compare  Jeremy  Taylor  :  "  When  they  suffer  transportations  beyond  the 
burden  and  support  of  reason,  they  suffer  they  know  not  what,  and  call  it  what  they 
please." 

*  Unless  a  man  personally  experience  ecstatic  states  his  use  of  their  types  is  mere 
taklid  (L.),  i.  e.  cant,  blindly  copying  or  repeating. 

*  If  you  cannot  experience  them  you  must  take  them  in  trust.     L. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  73 

Consider  their  attributes  in  this  place.1 
745     From  His  eye  proceed  languishing  and  intoxication, 

From  His  ruby  lip2  the  essence  of  being.3 

Because  of  His  eye  all  hearts  are  burning, 

His  ruby  lip  is  healing  to  the  sick  heart. 

Because  of  His  eye  hearts  are  drunken  and  aching, 

By  His  ruby  lip  all  souls  are  clothed.4 

Though  the  world  is  not  regarded  by  His  eye, 

His  lip  ever  and  anon  shows  compassion. 

Sometimes  with  humanity  He  charms  our  hearts, 

Sometimes  He  grants  help  to  the  helpless. 
750     By  smiles  He  gives  life  to  man's  water  and  clay, 

By  a  breath  He  kindles  the  heaven  into  a  flame.5 

Every  glance  of  His  eye  is  a  snare  baited  with  corn, 

Every  corner  thereof  is  a  wine  shop. 

With  a  frown  He  lays  waste  the  creature  world, 

With  one  kiss  He  restores  it  again  every  moment. 

Because  of  His  eye  our  blood  is  ever  boiling, 

Because  of  His  lip  our  souls  are  ever  beside  themselves. 

By  a  frown  of  His  eye  He  plunders  the  heart, 

By  a  smile  on  His  lips  He  cheers  the  soul. 
755     When  you  ask  of  His  eye  and  lip  an  embrace,6 

One  says  "nay,"  and  the  other  "yea." 

By  a  frown  He  finishes  the  affair  of  the  world, 

By  a  kiss  He  ever  and  anon  revives  the  soul. 

1  I.  e.,  in  the  world  of  mystery.     Eye  signifies  frowns  and  coquetry  holding  aloof 
from  its  slave,  lip  mercy  and  kindness  granting  union.     L. 

2  See  Hafiz,  Ode  305  (Brockhause) : 

"  Since  first  Hafiz  learned  to  tell  the  story  of  Thy  ruby  lip, 
From  his  pen  the  eternal  fount  of  life  is  flowing  evermore." 

3  Koran,  Sura  XV.  29:  "We  breathed  into  him  of  our  spirit,"  which  the  Sufis 
interpret  as  the   constant  efflux  of  Being  by  which  all  things  subsist, — the  khila't  of 
Being  thrown  over  the  nakedness  of  Not  being.     L.     See  couplet  645. 

4  Literally,  '  veiled.'     Compare  Psalm  xxxii.  1 :   "  Whose  sin  is  covered." 

5  I.  e.,  of  jealousy,  because  the  Divine  'deposit '  was  entrusted  to  man.     L.     See 
note  on  couplet  264. 

0  J.  e.,  union  with  the  Absolute.     L. 

L 


74  GULSHAN   I   BAZ. 

One  frown  from  Him  and  we  yield  up  our  lives, 
One  kiss  from  Him  and  we  rise  again. 
As  the  "  twinkling  of  an  eye  "'  comes  the  last  day, 
By  a  breath  the  spirit  of  Adam  was  created. 
When  the  world  reflects  on  His  eye  and  His  lip, 
It  gives  itself  up  to  the  worship  of  wine.2 
760     All  existence  is  not  regarded  by  His  eyes, 

They  regard  it  only  as  the  illusion  of  a  dream. 

Man's  existence  is  but  intoxication  or  a  sleep, 

What  relation  does  the  dust  bear  to  the  Lord  of  Lords  ? 

Reason  draws  a  hundred  perplexities  from  this 

That  He  said  "  thou  mightest  be  formed  after  mine  eye."' 

INDICATION 
OF  THE  CUBL.4 

The  story  of  the  curl  of  The  Beloved  is  very  long, 
What  is  it  meet  to  tell  of  this  seeing  it  is  a  mystery  ? 
Ask  not  of  me  the  story  of  that  knotted  curl, 
It  is  a  chain  leading  mad  lovers  captive. 

765     Last  night  I  spoke  straightforwardly  of  that  stately  form,5  | 
But  the  tip  of  the  curl  replied,  "  Conceal  it." 
Thence  crookedness  prevailed  over  straightness, 
And  the  enquirer's  path  was  twisted  awry. 
By  that  curl  all  hearts  are  enchained,6 
By  that  curl  all  souls  are  borne  to  and  fro. 

1  Koran,  Sura  LIV.  50.     See  1  Cor.  xv.  52. 

2  The  Eternal  Cupbearer  pours  the  wine  of  Being  into  the  cup  of  Not  being,  and 
hence  fills  it  with  the  intoxication  and  illusion  of  phenomenal  being.     L. 

3  Koran,  Sura  XX.  40  :  "I  bestowed  my  love  upon  thee,  that  thou  mightest  be 
fashioned  after  mine  eye." 

1  Curl  means  plurality  veiling  the  face  of  Unity  from  its  lovers.     L. 

5  I.  e.,  Unity.     L. 

"  I.e.,  from  beholding  Unity.     See  Hafiz  (Brockhaus),0de  338  : 

"  From  the  meshes  of  thy  tresses  there  are  none  who  can  get  free, 
Thou  dost  slay  thy  wretched  lovers  with  no  fear  of  penalty." 


GULSHAN    I   EAZ.  75 

A  hundred  thousand  hearts  are  bound  on  every  side, 

No  heart  escapes  from  the  yoke  thereof. 

If  He  shakes  aside  those  black  curls  of  His 

No  single  infidel  is  left  in  the  world. 
770     If  He  leaves  them  continually  in  their  place, 

There  remains  not  in  the  world  one  faithful  soul. 

That  spider's  web  of  His  is  spread  as  a  net  to  ensnare, 

In  wantonness  He  puts  it  aside  from  off  His  face.1 

If  His  curls  were  shorn,  what  harm  were  it  ? 

If  night  were  destroyed,  would  not  day  be  increased  ? 

As  He  plunders  the  caravan  of  reason, 

With  His  own  hands  He  binds  it  with  knots.2 

That  curl  is  never  at  rest  for  a  moment, 

Now  it  brings  morning  and  now  evening. 
775     With  His  face  and  His  curl  He  makes  day  and  night, 

Sporting  with  them  in  marvellous  fashion.3 

The  clay  of  Adam  became  leavened  at  the  moment 

When  it  caught  the  perfume  of  that  amber  scented  curl.4 

My  heart  holds  of  that  curl  an  ensample/ 

So  that  it  too  cannot  rest  for  a  moment. 

Therefore  every  moment  must  I  begin  my  work  afresh,6 

And  pluck  my  heart  out  of  my  bosom. 

Therefore  is  my  heart  troubled  by  that  curl, 

Because  it  veils  my  burning  heart  from  His  face. 

1  See  Hafiz,  Ode  10  : 

"  My  bosom's  fowl  spread  out  his  net,  and  caught  peace  for  his  prey, 

Then  thou  didst  loose  that  net  thy  hair,  and  peace  straight  flew  away." 
8  Reason  cannot  transcend  plurality.     L. 

3  Compare  the  Vulgate  :  "Ludens  in  orbe  terrarum."    By  veiling  and  unveiling  His 
face,  He  makes  light  and  darkness,  faith  and  infidelity,  &e.     L. 

4  Adam  obtained  the  '  deposit,' — the  faculty  of  displaying  all  the  Divine  attributes, 
— when  the  khila't  of  plurality  was  conferred  on  him.     L. 

'  Heart  is  the  epitome  of  man,  who  is  the  epitome  of  the  world  of  phenomena. 
Hence  it  contains  all  the  opposite  qualities,  light  and  dark,  good  and  evil,  &c.     L. 
0  I.  e.,  plurality  obscures  Unity  afresh.     L. 


L    2 


76  GULSHAN  I  EAZ. 

INDICATION 
OF  THE  CHEEK  AND  THE  DOWN.1 

780     The  cheek  in  this  place  is  the  theatre  of  Divine  beauty, 
And  the  down  signifies  the  vestibule  of  Almightiness. 
His  cheek  scores  a  line  through  beauty, 
Saying  "  without  me  is  no  comeliness  of  face." 
The  down  is  a  verdant  growth  in  the  spirit  world 
Therefore  is  it  named  the  "  mansion  of  life."3 
With  the  blackness  of  His  curl  turn  day  into  night, 
In  His  down  seek  the  well-spring  of  life. 
Like  Khizr  the  prophet  in  a  "  hidden  place  "  4 
Like  His  down,  quaff  the  water  of  life.5 

785     If  you  see  His  face  and  His  down,  of  a  surety 
You  will  know  plurality  and  unity  every  whit.6 
From  the  curl  you  learn  the  affair  of  this  world, 
In  the  down  you  read  at  large  the  "  the  hidden  secret." 
If  one  sees  the  down  on  His  face, 
Yet  my  heart  sees  His  face  in  that  down.7 
His  cheek  is  as  the  "  seven  verses,"  8 
Every  letter  whereof  is  an  ocean  of  mysteries. 
Hidden  beneath  each  hair  on  that  cheek 
Are  a  thousand  oceans  of  mysteries  from  the  unseen  world. 

1  The  check  means  the  Divine  essence  in  respect  of  the  manifestation  of  all  its 
names  and  qualities.     The  down  is  the  world  of  pure  spirits,  which  is  nearest  to 
Divinity.     L.     See  couplet  120. 

2  His  manifested  beauty  sums  up  and  surpasses  all  beauty.     L. 

1  Koran,  Sura  XXIX.  64  :  "  Truly  the  future  mansion  is  life  indeed." 

4  See  note  on  couplet  124. 

5  Passing  from  land  of  darkness,  i  e.  the  veil  of  plurality,  quaff  the   water   of  life 
(unity),  in  the  verdant  mead,  or  oasis  or  down  (the  spirit  world).     L. 

6  The  down — the  spirit  world — is  the  first  plural  emanation  which  veils  the  face 
of  unity.  L.     Curl,  the  sensible  world. 

7  One  sees  the  phenomenal  world,  and  infers  from  it  "  The  Truth  ;"  another  sees 
"  The  Truth"  first  in  all  that  he  sees.     See  couplet  85.     L. 

*  I.e.  Fatiha,  which  contains  the  whole  essence  of  the  Koran,  as  the  cheek  is  the 
manifestation  of  the  seven  names  of  God.     L. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  77 

790     See  the  heart  is  the  "  throne  of  God  on  the  water,"1 
The  down  on  the  cheek  is  the  adornment  of  souls. 


INDICATION 


On  that  cheek  the  point  of  His  mole  is  single, 
It  is  a  centre  which  is  the  basis  of  the  circling  circumference. 
From  that  centre  is  drawn  the  circle  of  the  two  worlds, 
From  that  centre  Adam's  heart  and  soul. 
Because  of  that  mole  the  heart  is  bleeding  sore, 
For  it  is  a  reflection  of  the  point  of  the  black  mole,3 
Like  His  mole  the  state  of  the  heart  is  black  blood, 
For  there  is  no  way  of  escape  from  that  station. 
795     Plurality  finds  not  entrance  into  Unity, 

There  are  no  two  points  in  the  root  of  Unity.4 

I  know  not  if  His  mole  is  the  reflection  of  my  heart, 

Or  my  heart  the  reflection  of  the  mole  on  that  fair  face. 

If  my  heart  springs  from  the  reflection  of  His  mole, 

Or  if  the  reflection  of  my  heart  is  seen  in  that  place.5 

If  my  heart  is  in  His  face,  or  that  mole  in  my  heart, 

This  dark  secret  is  hidden  from  me. 

If  this  heart  of  mine  be  the  reflection  of  that  mole, 

Why  are  its  states  so  various  ?8 

1  Alluding  to  the  Hadis  :  "  The  heart  of  the  believer  is  the  throne  of  God,"  and 
the  text,  "  His  throne  was   set  on  the  water."  —  Koran,  Sura  XL  9.     The  heart  is 
the  down  or  oasis  (spirit  world)  sprouting  on  the  face  like  water.     L. 

2  Mole   means  the  point   of  Unity — the  '  hidden    Ipseity,'   single   in   itself,   but 
embracing  all  phenomena.     L. 

1  See  note  on  couplet  151.     Both  are  sources  of  life  and  existence.     L. 

*  Hence  Unity  and  heart  must  be  one.     Which  is  the  original,  and  which  the 
reflection  ?  L. 

5  I.e.  His  face.     L. 

*  The  point   of  Unity  is   fixed  and  stable,  but  the  heart  is  disquieted  by  constant 
change  of  emotions,  brightened  by  Divine  epiphanies  and  darkened  by  the  veil  of 
plurality,  now  in  the  spiritual  mosque,  now  in  the  formal  synagogue,  now  sunk  in  the 
hell  of  carnal  affections,  now  raised  to  the  heaven  of  spiritual  emotions.     L. 


78  GULSEAN   I   EAZ. 

800     Sometimes  it  is  sick  like  His  intoxicating  eye, 
Sometimes  fluttering  like  His  curl. 
Sometimes  gleaming  as  a  moon  like  that  face, 
Sometimes  dark  like  that  black  mole. 
Sometimes  it  is  a  mosque,  sometimes  a  synagogue, 
Sometimes  a  hell,  sometimes  a  heaven. 
Sometimes  exalted  above  the  seventh  heaven, 
Sometimes  sunken  below  '  this  mound  '  of  earth. 
After  devotion  and  asceticism  it  becomes  again 
Addicted  to  wine,  lamp  and  beauty. 


QUESTION  XIV. 

805     What  meaning  attaches  to  wine,  torch,  and  beauty  ? 
What  is  assumed  in  being  a  haunter  of  taverns  ?l 

ANSWER  XIV. 

Wine,  torch,  and  beauty  are  epiphanies  of  Verity, 
For  it  is  that  which  is  revealed  under  all  forms  soever. 
Wine  and  torch  are  the  transport  and  light  of  the  '  knower,' 
Behold  '  The  Beauty '  for  it  is  hidden  from  none.2 
Here  wine  is  the  lamp-shade,  torch  the  lamp, 
And  Beauty  the  beam  of  the  light  of  spirits. 
By  Beauty  were  kindled  sparks  in  the  heart  of  Moses, 
His  wine  was  the  fire,  and  his  torch  the  burning  bush.3 
810     Wine  and  torch  are  the  soul  of  that  flashing  light, 
Beauty  signifies  that  'greatest  of  signs.'* 

1  Wine  is  the  rapture  making  the  Sufi  beside  himself  at  the  apparition  or  emana- 
tions of  The  Beloved  ;  torch,  the  light  kindled  in  his  heart  by  the  same  apparition  ; 
and  Beauty,  The  Truth  itself  manifested  and  present.     L. 

2  When  the  veil  of  self  is  removed.     L. 

3  See  notes  on  couplets  292  and  192. 

4  This  refers  to  Muhammad,  who  beheld  a  higher  revelation  than  Moses  when  he 
ascended  by  night  to  heaven  and  witnessed  God  as  a  light.     "  He  saw  the  greatest 
of  the  signs  of  his  Lord." — Koran,  Sura  LIII.  18. 


GULSHAN    I    KAZ.  79 

Wine,  torch,  and  beauty,  all  are  present, 
Neglect  not  to  embrace  that  Beauty. 
Quaff  the  wine  of  dying  to  self,  and  for  a  season 
Peradventure  you  will  be  freed  from  the  dominion  of  self. 
Drink  wine  that  it  may  set  you  free  from  yourself, 
And  may  conduct  the  being  of  the  drop  to  the  ocean.1 
Drink  wine,  for  its  cup  is  the  face  of  "  The  Friend," 
The  cup  is  His  eye  drunken  and  flown  with  wine. 

815     Seek  wine  without  cup  or  goblet, 

Wine  is  wine-drinker,  cupbearer  is  winecup.2 

Drink  wine  from  the  cup  of  "the  face  that  endures," * 

The  text  "  their  Lord  gave  them  to  drink  "  is  its  cupbearer.4 

Pure  wine  is  that  which  gives  you  purification    { 

From  the  stain  of  existence  at  the  time  of  intoxication,  j 

Drink  wine  and  rid  yourself  of  coldness  of  heart, 

For  a  drunkard  is  better  than  the  self-righteous. 

The  man  who  dwells  far  from  the  portals  of  "  The  Truth," 

For  him  the  veil  of  darkness  is  better  than  the  veil  of  light.4 

820     Thus  Adam  found  a  hundred  blessings  from  darkness,6 
And  Iblis  was  eternally  cursed  through  the  light. 
Though  the  mirror  of  the  heart  be  polished,7 

1  I.  e.,  the  drop  freed  from  its  phenomenal  limitation, '  dropness.'     L. 

*  I.  e.,  the  wine  of  ecstatic  absorption  in  Unity  annuls  all  phenomenal  plurality, 
makes  us  '  beside  ourselves,'  and  reduces  all  to  Unity.  L. 

'  Koran,  Sura  LV.  26. 

4  Koran,  Sura  LXXVI.  21. 

6  '  Veil  of  darkness '  means  dwelling  in  iniquity,  '  veil  of  light '  the  practice  of 
good  works.  He  who  is  veiled  by  the  former  knows  his  own  baseness,  but  he  who  is 
veiled  by  the  latter  knows  it  not,  being  clouded  by  his  own  conceit  of  self-righteousness. 
Koran,  Sura  XVIII.  103 :  "  Shall  we  tell  you  who  are  they  that  have  lost  their 
labour  most,  whose  aim  in  this  life  hath  been  mistaken  ?  they  who  think  that  what 
they  do  is  right."  L.  Compare: 

"  The  fool  simple  is  he  who  knows  that  he  knows  not, 
The  fool  complex  he  who  knows  not  that  he  knows  not." 

6  Adam  confessed  his  sin,  saying,  "  0  Lord,  we  have  darkened  our  souls." — Koran, 
Sura  VII.  22. — Satan's  pride  of  origin  from  fire  led  to  his  fall.     "  Me  thou  hast 
created  of  fire."     Sura  XXXVIII.  77.     Compare  Heb.  i.  7. 

7  I.  e.  by  good  works.     L. 


80  GULSHAN    I   EAZ. 

What  profit  is  it  when  only  self  is  seen  on  its  face. 
When  a  ray  from  His  face  falls  upon  the  wine, 
Many  forms  are  seen  on  it  as  it  were  bubbles.1 
World  and  spirit  world  are  seen  on  it  as  bubbles, 
Its  bubbles  are  to  the  saints  as  veils. 
Universal  Reason  is  dazed  and  beside  itself  at  this, 
Universal  Soul  is  reduced  to  slavery.2 

825     The  whole  universe  is  as  His  winehouse, 
The  heart  of  every  atom  as  His  winecup.3 
Reason  is  drunken,  angels  drunken,  soul  drunken, 
Air  drunken,  earth  drunken,  heaven  drunken. 
The  heavens  giddy  with  this  wine  are  reeling  to  and  fro, 
Desiring  in  their  heart  to  smell  its  perfume. 
The  angels  drinking  it  pure  from  pure  vessels, 
Pour  the  dregs  of  their  draught  upon  this  world.4 
The  elements  becoming  light-headed  from  that  draught 
Fall  now  into  the  fire,  now  into  the  water. 

830     From  the  scent  of  its  dregs  which  fell  on  the  earth, 
Man  ascends  up  till  he  reaches  heaven. 
From  its  reflection  the  withered  body  becomes  a  living  soul,5 
From  its  heat  the  frozen  soul  is  warmed  to  life  and  motion. 
The  creature  world  is  ever  dizzy  therewith, 
From  house  and  home  ever  wandering  astray. 
One  from  the  scent  of  its  dregs  becomes  a  philosopher," 
One  from  seeing  the  colour  of  the  pure  wine  a  traditionist.7 
One  from  half  a  draught  becomes  righteous, 

1  Phenomena  are  as  bubbles  ou  the  sea  of  Being.     L. 

a  The  wine  of  Divine  love  and  ecstasy  intoxicates  all  phenomena  from  the  first 
emanation  downwards.     L. 

3  The  existence  of  every  atom  proceeds  from  the  wine  of  Divine  love.     All  are 
vessels  holding  Being  according  to  their  various  capacities.     L. 

4  The  spirit  world  was  first  created,  and  thus  quaffs  the  wine  of  Divine  emanation 
nearer  to  its  source.     The  world  is  a  later  emanation.     L. 

5  Aspiring  or  moving  towards  its  source.     L. 

0  These  are  the  various  grades  which  men  attain  in  proportion  to  their  capacity  to 
receive  the  pure  wine.     L. 

7  Pure,  because  traditionists  repeat  the  sayings  of  the  prophets.     L. 


GULSHAN    I    EAZ.  81 

One  from  quaffing  a  cupful  becomes  a  lover. 
835     Yet  another  swallows  at  one  draught 

Cup,  winehouse,  cupbearer  and  wine  drinker. 

He  swallows  them  all,  yet  his  mouth  remains  open. 

Well  done,  0  ocean  heart,  0  mighty  wine  bibber ! ' 

He  drinks  up  existence  at  one  draught, 

And  obtains  release  from  affirmations  and  negations. 

Freed  from  dry  devotions  and  empty  rites, 

He  grasps  the  skirt  of  the  ancient  of  the  winehouse.2 

INDICATION 
OF  TAVERN-HAUNTERS.3 

To  be  a  haunter  of  taverns  is  to  be  freed  from  self, 

Self-regard  is  paganism,  even  if  it  be  in  righteousness.4 
840     They  have  brought  you  news  from  the  tavern 

That  unification  is  shaking  off  relations.5 

The  tavern  is  of  the  world  that  has  no  similitude, 

It  is  the  place  of  lovers  that  reck  not. 

The  tavern  is  the  nest  of  the  bird  of  the  soul, 

The  tavern  is  the  sanctuary  that  has  no  place. 

The  tavern-haunter  is  desolate  in  a  desolate  place, 

In  his  desert  the  world  is  as  a  mirage.6 

This  desert  has  no  end  or  limit, 

No  man  has  seen  its  beginning  or  its  end. 
845     Though  you  wander  about  in  it  for  a  hundred  years, 

You  will  find  there  neither  yourself,  nor  '  other.' 

They  that  dwell  therein  are  headless  and  footless, 

They  are  neither  faithful  nor  infidels. 

1  See  note  on  couplet  701. 

1  I.e.,  the  Pir-i-kamil,  or  Director  of  the  Sufi  pilgrim.     L. 

3  Tavern  signifies  Unity. 

1  See  note  on  couplet  819. 

5  Compare  couplet  640. 

6  I.e.,  an  unreal  phenomenon  in  the  expanse  of  Being.     In  this  expanse  all  '  other  ' 
is  absent.  L.     Kharahat  means  "  desert"  as  well  as  "  tavern." 

M 


82  GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 

The  wine  of  alienation  from  self  has  got  into  their  heads, 

They  have  renounced  alike  evil  and  good. 

Each  has  drunk  wine  without  lips  or  palate, 

Each  has  cast  away  thought  of  name  and  fame, 

Talk  of  marvels,  of  visions,  and  'states,' 

Dreams  of  secret  chambers,  of  lights,  of  signs.1 
850     All  through  the  smell  of  these  dregs  have  they  cast  away, 

Through  tasting  this  self-annihilator  they  are  lying  drunken. 

Pilgrim's  staff,  and  cruse,  and  rosary,  and  dentifrice, 

All  have  they  given  as  ransom  for  these  dregs. 

Falling  and  rising  again  in  the  midst  of  water  and  clay,2 

Shedding  blood  from  their  eyes  for  tears. 

Now  raised  by  intoxication  to  the  world  of  bliss, 

Exalting  their  necks  as  racers. 

Now  with  blackened  faces  beholding  the  wall, 

Now  with  reddened  faces  impaled  on  the  stake.3 
855     Now  in  the  mystic  dance  of  joy  in  The  Beloved, 

Losing  head  and  foot  like  the  revolving  heavens. 

In  every  strain  which  they  hear  from  the  minstrel 

Comes  to  them  rapture  from  the  unseen  world. 

The  mystic  song  is  not  those  mere  words  and  sound, 

For  in  every  note  thereof  lies  a  precious  mystery. 

Putting  from  off  their  head  their  tenfold  cloak,4 

Being  abstracted  from  every  colour  and  smell ; 

And  washing  off  in  that  pure  well  racked  wine, 

All  colour,  black  and  green  and  blue. 
860     Drinking  one  cup  of  that  pure  wine, 

And  thence  becoming  "  Sufis  "  cleansed  from  qualities  ; 

Sweeping  the  dust  of  dung-heaps  from  off  their  souls, 

1  All  these  are  experienced  in  the  journey  up  to  Unity,  but  are  now  left  behind.  L. 
See  the  passage  from  Ghazali  in  note  on  couplet  411. 

1  I.  e.,  now  in  the  delight  of  '  union,'  now  in  the  aching  void  of  separation.    L. 

3  This  refers  to  the  execution  of  Mansur  Hallaj.  Now  blackened  by  separation  from 
the  light  by  the  wall  of  phenomena,  now  with  faces  reddened  by  the  intoxicating 
wine  of  Union.  L. 

*  J.  e.,  the  senses  external  and  internal.     See  note  to  couplet  124. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  83 

Telling  not  a  hundredth  part  of  what  they  see, 

Grasping  the  skirts  of  drunkards  flown  with  wine, 

Wearied  of  teachership  and  discipleship.1 

What  are  devotion  and  piety  ?     What  hypocrisy  are  these  ? 

What  are  teachership  and  discipleship?  What  bonds  are  these  ? 2 

If  your  face  be  still  set  on  great  and  small,3 

Idols,  girdles  and  Christianity  are  meet  for  you.4 


QUESTION  XV. 

865     Idols,  girdles  and  Christianity  in  this  discourse 
Are  all  infidelity  ;  if  not,  say  what  they  are. 

ANSWER  XV. 

Here  idol  is  the  evidence  of  love  and  unity, 
Girdle  is  the  binding  of  the  bond  of  obedience. 
Since  infidelity  and  faith  are  both  based  on  Being, 
Idol-worship  is  essentially  Unification.5 
Since  all  tilings  are  the  manifestors  of  Being, 
One  amongst  them  must  be  an  idol. 
Consider  well,  0  wise  man, 
An  idol  as  regards  its  real  being  is  not  vain.6 

"  The  secrets  hid  behind  the  veil  from  publicans  enquire, 
Great  devotees  of  high  degree  that  knowledge  ne'er  attain." 

Hafiz,  Ode  4. 
'I.e.,  duality  exists  no  more  for  the  '  united  '  Sufi.     L. 

3  /  e.,  seeing  distinctions  where  all  are  one.     L. 

4  As  a  means  of  training  you  to  see  true  Unity.     L. 

6  For  if  '  other '  exists  '  unification '  is  impossible.    '  Other '  involves  shirk,  giving 
partners  to  God,  Manichasanism.  L.     Compare  Hafiz  (Brockhaus),  Ode  79 : 

"  Between  the  love  of  the  cloister  and  that  of  the  tavern  there  is  no  difference, 
For  wherever  love  is,  there  is  the  light  of  the  face  of  the  Beloved. 
Wherever  the  pious  works  of  the  Moslem  hermitage  display  their  beauty, 
There  are  the  bells  of  the  Christian  convent  and  the  name  of  the  Cross." 

6  See  note  on  couplet  236. 

M   2 


84  GULSHAN    I   BAZ. 

870     Know  that  God  Most  High  created  it, 

And  whatever  comes  from  the  Good  is  good. 

Being  is  purely  good  in  whatever  it  be, 

If  it  also  contains  evil,  that  proceeds  from  '  other.'1 

If  the  Musulman  but  knew  what  is  faith, 

He  would  see  that  faith  is  idol-worship. 

If  the  polytheist  only  knew  what  idols  are, 

How  would  he  be  wrong  in  his  religion  ? 

He  sees  in  idols  naught  but  the  visible  creature,2 

And  that  is  the  reason  that  he  is  legally  a  heathen. 
875     You  also,  if  you  see  not  "  The  Truth"  hid  in  the  idols, 

In  the  eye  of  the  law  are  not  a  Musulman. 

By  telling  beads  and  saying  prayers  and  reading  the  Koran 

The  heathen  becomes  not  a  Musulman. 

That  man  is  disgusted  with  superficial  faith, 

To  whom  the  true  infidelity  has  once  been  revealed. 

Within  every  body  is  hidden  a  soul, 

And  within  infidelity  is  hidden  true  faith. 

Infidelity  is  ever  giving  praise  to  "  The  Truth;" 

The  text,  "All  things  praise  God,"  proves  it.     Who  can  gain- 
say it  ?3 
880     What  am  I  saying  ?  I  have  gone  astray  from  the  road  ? 4 

"  Leave  them,  and  after  all  tliat  is  revealed,  say,  God,"* 

Who  adorned  the  face  of  the  idol  with  such  beauty  ? 

Who  became  an  idol-worshipper,  unless  "  The  Truth  "  willed  it  ? 

It  is  He  that  made,  He  that  said,  He  that  is,6 

Made  good,  said  good,  is  good. 

See  but  One,  say  One,  know  but  One, 

1  I.  e.  not  being  and  plurality.     L.     See  couplet  033. 

2  I.  e.  the  phenomenal.     L. 

3  See  note  on  couplet  440. 

4  I.  e.  far  from  the  road  of  the  external  positive  law,  but  yet  leave  gainsayers  and 
say  of  all  it  is  God.     L. 

"  Say  God  (has  sent  down  the  Koran),  and  then  leave  them  to  amuse  themselves 
with  their  vain  discourses." — Koran,  Sura  VI.  91. 
0  Said,  i.  e.  be  an  idol-worshipper.     L, 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  85 

In  this  are  summed  up  the  roots  and  branches  of  faith. 
It  is  not  I  who  declare  this  ;  hear  it  from  the  Koran, 
"  There  is  no  distinction  in  the  creatures  of  the  Merciful."1 

INDICATION 
OF    THE   GIRDLE. 

885     The  knotted  girdle  is  the  emblem  of  obedience. 
I  have  looked  and  seen  the  origin  of  every  thing, 
For  the  wise  man  finds  no  trustworthy  information 
As  to  anything  except  in  its  original  usage.2 
Gird  your  loins,  like  a  valiant  man,  with  manliness, 
Join  the  band  who  "fulfil  my  covenant."3 
With  the  horse  of  knowledge  and  the  bat  of  obedience 
Bear  off  from  the  field  the  ball  of  good  fortune. 
For  this  duty  did  God  create  you, 
Albeit  He  created  many  creatures  besides  you.4 

890     Knowledge  is  as  a  father,  practice  a  mother 

Of  mystic  states  which  are  "  a  joy  of  the  eyes."* 
Doubtless,  there  is  no  mortal  man  but  has  a  father,8 
There  was  never  but  one  Messiah  in  the  world.7 
Cast  aside  vain  tales,  and  mystic  states  and  visions, 
Dreams  of  lights,  and  marvels  of  miracles.8 
Your  miracles  are  comprised  in  "  Truth"  worship,9 

1  Koran,  Sura  LXVII.  3. 

2  See  couplet  728. 

3  Koran,  Sura  II.  38 :  "0  children  of  Israel,  fulfil  your  covenant  with  me,"  i.e. 
obedience.     See  couplet  419. 

4  Koran,  Sura  LI.  56  :  "I  have  not  created  .Tins  and  men  save  to  serve  and 
obey  me." 

5  "  No  soul  knoweth  the  joy  of  the  eyes  which  is  secretly  prepared  for  them  as  a 
reward  for  that   which   they   have   wrought." — Koran,    Sura  XXXII.   18.      See 
1  Cor.  ii.  9. 

*  Knowledge,  the  father,  is  necessary,  as  well  as  obedience  or  practice,  the  mother, 
to  bring  men  to  the  good  fortune  of  Union.     L. 

7  See  Koran,  Sura  III.  42. 

8  Compare  couplet  849  and  note. 

9  Miracles,  Tcaramat,  also  mighty  works,  honour,  as  in  couplet  554. 


86  GULSHAN    I    EAZ. 

All  besides  is  pride,  vain  glory  and  illusion  of  existence. 
In  this  path  whatever  is  not  of  poverty  of  spirit 
Is  but  being  puffed  up  and  seeking  our  own  glory.1 

895     By  cursed  Iblis,  who  witnesses  not  verity, 
Are  wrought  thousands  of  miracles. 
Now  he  approaches  from  the  wall,  now  from  the  roof, 
Now  he  dwells  in  your  heart,  now  in  your  body. 
He  knows  all  the  hidden  counsels  of  your  heart, 
He  works  in  you  unbelief,  and  transgression  and  sin. 
Iblis  is  the  Imam,  and  you  his  followers,2 
But  how  can  you  rival  him  in  his  miracles  ? 
If  your  miracles  are  wrought  only  in  self- ostentation, 
You  are  a  Pharaoh,  to  wit,  one  arrogating  divinity. 

900     But  he  who  has  fellowship  with  "  The  Truth" 
Is  never  one  who  vaunts  himself. 
All  your  regard  is  set  on  creatures ;  Beware 
That  you  fall  not  into  captivity  of  this  disease.3 
If  you  consort  with  the  base,  you  become  an  animal ; 
Nay,  not  an  animal,  but  at  once  a  stone.* 
Flee  from  connection  with  the  base, 
Lest  you  fall  headlong  from  your  natural  rank. 
You  have  wasted  your  precious  life  in  trifling, 
You  think  not  of  what  use  is  such  a  life  as  yours. 

905     They  call  it  peace  when  it  is  confusion, 

They  take  an  ass  for  their  guide — see  his  beard  ! s 
The  leadership  having  now  devolved  on  fools, 
All  men  have  fallen  on  evil  days. 

1  Miracles,  if  done  to  be  seen  of  men,  are  a  cause  of  egoism.     L. 

-  Because  you  work  miracles  for  self-ostentation.     L. 

'  I.  e.  the  wish  to  be  thought  a  mighty  worker  of  miracles.     You  seek  the  appro- 
bation of  the  base,  and,  by  consorting  with  them,  sink  to  their  level.     L. 

*  Naskli  transmigration  of  the  soul  into  men,  maslch  into  animals,  raskh  into  plants 
and  into  minerals,  fasJeh  into  all.  L.     See  Schmoluers  (Documenta,  p.  123). 

I.  e.  the  mark  of  the  popular  Shaikh.  L.  This  passage  would  seem  to  have 
been  written  under  the  influence  of  personal  animosity  against  some  particular 
popular  teacher,  but  Lahiji  treats  it  as  of  only  general  application. 


GULSHAN    I    EAZ.  87 

See  the  one-eyed  Dajjal,1  in  what  way 

He  is  sent  into  the  world  as  an  ensample. 

See  this  ensample,  0  man  of  sense  ! 

Know  him  for  the  ass  whose  name  is  Jassds. 

See  all  these  asses  in  the  toils  of  that  ass, 

Being  the  forerunners  in  ignorance  of  that  ass. 
910     When  our  lord  told  the  story  of  the  latter  days, 

In  several  places  he  signified  this  matter. 

See  now  how  there  are  blind  and  gluttons, 

All  knowledge  of  the  faith  has  departed  to  heaven. 

There  remain  not  in  the  midst  courtesy  and  modesty, 

None  have  shame  for  their  ignorance. 

The  whole  condition  of  the  world  is  upset ; 

If  you  are  wise,  see  in  what  state  it  is. 

One  who  is  accursed  and  banned  and  hated 

Is  now  Shaikh  of  the  age,  because  his  father  was  good. 
915     Yet  that  wicked  son  was  slain  by  Khizr,2 

Because  his  father  and  grandfather  were  good. 

0  ass,  now  you  have  chosen  for  your  Shaikh 

An  ass  who  is  more  ass-like  than  yourselves. 

For  as  much  as  "  he  knoivs  not  cat  from  mouse,"  3 

How  will  your  secret  be  purified  through  him  ? 

If  the  son  shows  a  trace  of  his  father, 

What  shall  I  say  ?     Verily  he  is  light  upon  light. 

If  the  son  be  of  good  judgment  and  fortune, 

He  is  as  fruit,  the  cream  and  perfection  of  the  tree. 
920     But  how  can  he  be  Shaikh  of  the  faith, 

Who  knows  not  good  from  evil,  evil  from  good  ? 

Discipleship  is  learning  the  knowledge  of  the  faith, 

1  Dajjal,  Antichrist,  and  Jassds,  the  spy,  a  mighty  beast  sixty  cubits  high,  will 
appear  as  precursors  of  the  last  day. — Sale's  Koran,  Prelim.  Discourse,  p.  57,  and 
Sura  XXVII.  83,  84.     1  John  ii.  18.     1  Tim.  iv.  1. 

2  See  Koran,  Sura  XVIII.  61.     Khizr  slew  him  because  he  feared  that  his  parents 
would  suffer  for  their  son's  perverseness. 

3  Or  '  calling  cattle,  from  driving  them  away,'  or  '  good  from  evil.' 


88  GULSHAN    I    EAZ. 

Kindling  with  light  the  lamp  of  the  heart. 

Did  ever  one  learn  knowledge  from  the  dead  ? 

Was  ever  lamp  lighted  from  ashes  ? 

For  this  cause  my  mind"  is  resolved  on  this, 

To  gird  my  loins  with  the  Magian  girdle.1 

Not  for  this  cause  that  I  may  gain  fame, 

That  I  have,  but  am  ashamed  of  it.2 
925     Since  my  rival  is  base  for  this  cause, 

My  obscurity  is  preferable  to  his  fame. 

Again  an  inspiration  came  to  me  from  "  The  Truth," 

"  Cavil  not  at  Wisdom  because  of  a  fool."' 

If  there  were  no  sweepers  in  the  world, 

The  world  would  be  buried  in  dust. 

After  all,  the  bond  of  genus  connects  us  ail- 
So  goes  the  world,  Allah  is  all-ivise. 

Nevertheless  flee  from  the  society  of  the  base, 

If  you  seek  to  be  a  true  servant  abandon  form  ;4 
930     Form  accords  not  with  true  obedience, 

Practise  true  obedience,  and  abandon  form. 

INDICATION 
ON  CHRISTIANITY. 

In  Christianity  the  end  I  see  is  purification  from  self,5 
Deliverance  from  the  yoke  of  bondage.6 

1  I.  e.,  as  a  mark  of  distinction  from  the  ignorant   Shaikh,  who  cleaves  only  to 
outward  form.     L. 

2  Because  it  is  shared  with  the  ignorant  Shaikh.     L. 

8  Because  all  things  are  created  for  some  purpose.     L. 

4  'Ibadat,  servitude,  obedience,  devotion.  'Adat,  custom,  usage,  habit,  form, 
mechanical  religion,  routine.  Lahiji  explains  it  as  '  the  five  pillars '  of  the  Moslem 
law,  viz.  reciting  the  creed,  prayer,  fasting,  alms  and  pilgrimage.  St.  Paul's  '  righte- 
ousness of  the  law.' 

''  Purification  from  self,  tajrid.  See  note  on  couplet  86.  So  in  couplet  936  below, 
purified,  mujarrad: 

"  If  you  ascend,  like  Messiah,  pure  and  free  to  heaven." 

Hafiz. 

6  Bondage,  taJclid.     See  note  on  couplet  109. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  89 

The  blessed  portal  of  Unity  is  the  sanctuary  of  the  soul, 
Which  is  the  nest  of  the  Everlasting — the  Simurg. 
This  doctrine  was  taught  by  God's  spirit  (Jesus), 
Who  proceeded  from  the  Blessed  Spirit.1 
Also  by  God  is  placed  in  you  a  soul, 
Wherein  is  a  sample  of  the  Blessed  Spirit. 
935     If  you  find  release  from  the  carnal  mind  of  humanity, 
You  will  obtain  entrance  to  the  life  of  Divinity. 
Every  man  who  is  purified  as  angels  are  pure 
Will  ascend  with  God's  spirit  to  the  fourth  heaven. 

ILLUSTRATION.2 

The  infant  that  sucks  the  breast  is  confined 
At  his  mother's  side  in  a  cradle. 
But  when  he  is  grown  up  and  able  to  travel, 
If  he  is  manly  he  goes  with  his  father. 
The  elements  are  to  you  as  your  mother  after  the  flesh, 
You  are  an  infant,  and  your  father  is  the  Father  on  high.3 
940     For  this  cause  said  Jesus  at  the  time  of  His  ascension, 
"  I  go  unto  my  Father  which  is  on  high."4 
You  too,  0  soul  of  your  Father,  turn  to  your  Father, 
Your  companions  are  gone,  go  forth  too. 
If  you  desire  to  take  wing  as  a  bird, 
Cast  the  carrion  world  to  the  vultures. 
Give  to  the  base  the  treacherous  world, 
It  is  not  meet  to  give  carrion  but  to  dogs.5 
What  matters  relationship  ?     Seek  your  real  friend, 

1  The  Holy  Ghost,  or  "  Blessed  Spirit,"  is  by  Muhammadans  identified  with  the 
angel  Gabriel,  the  Divine  Messenger.  See  Deutsch,  Remains,  p.  80,  and  Koran, 
Sura  II.  81,  III.  40.  The  Jewish  expositors  seem  to  have  held  the  same  view. 
Rodwell  sub  loco. 

'  On  the  spiritual  ascension  of  the  human  soul. 

'  Father  dla.     See  Rom.  viii.  15. 

4  See  John  xx.  17. 

'  Alluding  to  the  Hadis  :  "  The  world  is  carrion,  and  they  that  seek  it  are  dogs." 

N 


.90  GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 

Set  your  face  towards  "  The  Truth,"  forsake  relations.' 
945     For  him  who  is  drowning  in  the  sea  of  not  being, 

The  text  "  no  relation"2  is  the  coin  of  his  state. 

Every  relationship  that  arises  from  lust 

Yields  no  issue  but  pride  and  high-mindedness. 

If  lust  remained  not  in  the  midst, 

All  relations  would  become  an  empty  tale. 

When  lust  is  doing  its  work  in  the  midst, 

One  becomes  a  father,  another  a  mother. 

I  say  not  what  your  father  and  mother  are, 

For  it  behoves  you  to  regard  them  with  reverence. 
95d     The  deficient  in  sense  is  called  sister,3 

The  envious  is  named  brother. 

Your  own  enemy  is  called  your  son,4 

And  a  stranger  your  kinsman. 

Say  then  who  are  your  paternal  and  maternal  uncles, 

What  proceeds  from  them  but  pain  and  wrinkles  ? 

The  companions  who  are  with  you  on  the  mystic  path, 

0  brother,  are  also  companions  in  foolish  jesting.5 

If  you  sit  in  the  street  of  their  pleasantry, 

What  good  can  I  say  you  see  of  them  ? 
955     All  relations  are  a  fairy  tale,  a  spell,  a  bond, 

By  the  soul  of  the  prophet  they  are  naught  but  a  delusion. 

With  manliness  deliver  yourself  like  a  valiant  man, 

But  yet  make  not  vain  the  truth  of  any.6 

If  one  atom  of  the  law  be  neglected, 

You  will  be  excluded  from  the  faith  in  both  worlds. 

Beware  !  Omit  not  the  duties  of  the  law, 

But  at  the  same  time  have  regard  to  yourself. 

1   Jesus  had  no  relations  says  Lahiji,  possibly  alluding  to  Matt.  xii.  48. 

•  "  When  the  trumpet   shall  be  sounded,  there  shall  be  no  relation  between  them 
on  that  day,  neither  shall  they  ask  aid  of  one  another." — Koran,  Sura  XXIII.  103. 

J  See  couplet  186. 

*  Koran,  Sura  LXIV.  14  :   "  Verily  in  your  wives  and  children  you  have  enemies." 
5  Even  the  relationship  of  the  Sufi  tarikat  must  be  renounced.     L. 

0  Compare  Tennyson,  "  In  Memoriam,"  xxxiii. 


GULSHAN    I    EAZ.  91 

From  gold  and  women1  comes  naught  but  store  of  pain, 

Abandon  them  as  Jesus  abandoned  Mary. 
960     Be  a  "  true  believer,"2  and  forsaking  the  bond  of  sects, 

Enter  the  cloister  of  faith  as  a  Christian  monk.3 

While  "  other"  and  "others"  are  set  before  your  eyes, 

Though  you  be  in  a  mosque,  it  is  no  better  than  a  Christian 
cloister. 

When  the  vesture  of  "  other"  passes  out  of  sight, 

The  cloister  becomes  to  you  as  a  mosque.4 

I  know  not  in  what  religious  state  you  are, 

Cast  out  your  adversary  the  flesh,  that  you  may  escape. 

Idols,  girdles,  Christianity  and  church  bells 

All  indicate  the  renouncing  of  name  and  fame. 
965     If  you  would  become  a  faithful  servant, 

Prepare  yourself  in  faithfulness  and  sincerity. 

Go,  take  yourself  out  of  your  own  road, 

Every  moment  renew  your  faith. 

While  infidelity  dwells  in  your  inmost  soul, 

Be  not  satisfied  with  this  outward  Islam. 

Of  yourself  every  moment  renew  your  faith, 

Be  a  believer,  Be  a  believer,  Be  a  believer ! 

Verily  faith  is  born  of  infidelity, 

That  is  not  infidelity  from  which  faith  is  increased. 
970     Abandon  study  to  be  seen  and  heard  of  men, 

1  Hammer  reads  sozan,  needle,  and  says  there  is  a  legend  that  Jesus  at  the  time 
of  his  ascension  had  a  needle  stuck  in  the  border  of  his  garment,  and  could  not  obtain 
entrance  to  heaven  till  he  had  cast  it  away. 

3  "  Abraham  was  neither  a  Jew  nor  a  Christian,  but  he  was  of  the  true  religion,  a 
true  believer  (Hanifun  Muslimun),  and  not  one  of  the  idolaters." — Koran,  Sura  III. 
60.     This  "  religion  of  Abraham  "  is,  according  to  Deutsch  (Remains,  pp.  94,  128), 
the  clue  to  Islam.     The  Hanifs,  mentioned  in  the  Talmud,  seem  to  have  instructed 
Muhammad  in  the  Jewish  faith  and  doctrines. 

'  I.  e.  renouncing  all  worldly  relations.     L. 

4  Koran,  Sura  II.  59  :  "  Verily  Muslims  and  Jews  and  Christians  and  Sabeites — 
whoever  of  these  believeth  in  God  and  the  last  day,  and  doeth  that  which  is  right, 
shall  have  his  reward  with  the  Lord."     Compare  Acts  x.  35  :  "  In  every  nation  h« 
that  fearethHim  and  worketh,  righteousness  is  accepted  with  Him," 


92  GULSHAN    I    EAZ. 

Cast  off  the  Durvesh  cloak,  bind  on  the  Magian  girdle. 
Be  as  our  Magian  sage  in  pure  infidelity, 
If  you  are  a  man,  give  your  heart  to  manliness. 
Purge  yourself  from  affirmations  and  negations, 
Give  your  mind  wholly  to  the  young  Christian. 

INDICATION 
OF  IDOLS  AND  YOUNG  CHRISTIANS.1 

Idols  and  young  Christians  are  the  Light  made  manifest, 

For  it  finds  its  exponent  in  the  idol's  face. 

It  leads  captive  all  hearts, 

It  is  now  the  minstrel, — now  the  cupbearer. 
(J7.r)     What  a  minstrel  is  he  who  by  one  sweet  melody 

Burns  up  the  garners  of  a  hundred  devotees  !  * 

What  a  cupbearer  is  he  who  by  a  single  cup 

Makes  drunken  two  hundred  men  of  threescore  and  ten  ! 

If  he  enters  the  mosque  at  early  dawn, 

He  leaves  not  a  single  wakeful  man  therein.5 

If  he  enters  the  cloister  drunken  at  night, 

He  makes  Sufis'  stories  an  empty  tale. 

If  he  enters  the  college  as  a  veiled  drunkard, 

The  professor  becomes  helplessly  drunken. 
980     From  love  to  him  devotees  lost  their  heads, 

And  became  outcasts  from  house  and  home. 

He  makes  one  faithful,  another  an  infidel,4 

He  fills  the  world  with  tumult  and  wrong. 

Taverns  have  been  edified  by  his  lips, 

Mosques  have  been  illumined  by  his  cheek.5 

All  my  desire  has  been  accomplished  through  him, 

Through  him  I  gained  deliverance  from  infidel  lust. 

My  heart  was  hid  from  knowledge  of  itself  by  a  hundred  veils, 

1  Young  Christian,  i.e.  the  Pir  or  spiritual  guide.     L. 

2  I.e.,  their  self  regard.     L. 

*  They  learn  their  waking  to  be  an  '  illusion.'     L. 

4  This  is  the  effect  of  preaching  the  truth.     L. 

'-  The  tavern  is  the  exponent  of  the  Divine  jalal,  and  the  mosque  ofjamal.     L. 


GULSHAN    I    RAZ.  93 

By  pride  and  vanity  and  self  conceit  and  illusion. 
985     That  fair  idol  entered  my  door  at  early  morn, 

And  wakened  me  from  the  sleep  of  negligence. 

By  his  face  the  secret  chamber  of  my  soul  was  illumined. 

Thereby  I  saw  what  I  myself  really  am. 

When  I  cast  a  look  on  his  fair  face 

I  heaved  a  sigh  of  wonder  from  my  soul. . 

He  said  to  me,  "0  Pharisee  and  hypocrite, 

"  Thy  life  has  been  spent  in  seeking  name  and  fame, 

"Behold  this  knowledge,  devotion,  self  seeking  and  illusion, 

"  From  what  have  they  kept  thee  back,  0  laggard  ! 
990     "  To  cast  one  glance  on  my  face  for  half  a  moment, 

"  Is  worth  a  thousand  years  of  devotion." 

In  fine  the  face  of  that  world-adorner 

Was  disclosed  and  unveiled  before  my  eyes. 

The  face  of  my  soul  was  blackened  with  shame 

To  think  of  my  life  lost  and  my  wasted  days. 
But  when  that  moon,  whose  face  was  as  the  sun, 

Saw  that  I  had  cast  away  hope  from  my  soul, 
He  filled  a  goblet  and  gave  it  me  to  drink,1 
And  from  that  draught  fire  was  kindled  within  me. 
995     "  Now,"  quoth  he,  "  with  this  wine,  tasteless  and  odourless,2 
"  Wash  from  thee  the  writing  on  the  tablet  of  Being." 
When  I  had  drained  that  pure  draught  to  the  last  drop 
I  fell  beside  myself  on  the  bare  dust. 
Now  I  neither  exist  in  myself,  nor  do  I  not  exist, 
I  am  not  sober,  not  sick,  not  drunken. 
Sometimes  like  his  eye  I  am  joyful, 
Sometimes  like  his  curls  I  am  fluttering. 
Sometimes  by  force  of  nature  I  am  lying  on  ashes, 
Sometimes  at  a  look  from  him  I  am  in  the  rose  garden.3 

1  The  cup  of  Ma'rifat,  or  Divine  knowledge.     L. 
1  I.  e.,  pure  from  phenomenal  qualities.     L. 

*  This  is  descriptive  of  the  alternations  of  sahu,  sobriety,  and  malm,  intoxication 
of  union.     L. 


04  GULSHAN    I    RAZ. 


EPILOGUE. 


1000     From  that  rose  garden  I  have  plucked  this  posy, 

Which  I  have  named  "the  mystic  rose  garden." 

Therein  the  roses  of  hearts'  mystery  are  blooming, 

Whereof  none  has  told  heretofore. 

Therein  the  tongues  of  the  lilies  are  all  vocal ; 

The  eyes  of  the  narcissus  are  all  far-seeing. 

Regard  each  one  with  the  eyes  of  the  heart 

Till  your  doubts  have  vanished  from  before  you. 

Behold  traditional  and  rational  and  mystic  verities, 

Ranged  in  clear  order  with  knowledge  of  minutiae. 
1005     Seek  not  with  captious  eyes  to  find  blemishes, 

For  then  the  roses  will  turn  to  thorns  in  your  sight. 

Ingratitude  is  a  mark  of  ignorance, 

But  knowledge  of  truth  lies  in  gratitude. 

I  hope  that  when  the  noble  l  calls  me  to  mind, 

He  may  say  of  me,  "  Mercy  be  upon  him," 

I  conclude  and  end  with  my  own  name, 

"  0  Allah,  grant  me  a  '  Lauded  '  end."  2 

1  'Azizi.  Tholuck  takes  this  as  the  titular  name  (Takhallaii)  of  the  poet,  but  it 
either  refers  to  the  noble  mentioned  in  the  commencement  of  the  poem  or  to  the 
pious  reader. 

5  I.e.,  Makmud. 


NOTE  ON  THE  PROSODY  OF  THE  "  GULSHAN  1  RAZ.' 


As  before  stated  (p.  v.,  note),  the  metre  is  Hexameter  Hazaj  Catalectic ;  the  last 
foot  may  befa'ulun  as  well  as  mafd'il.  (Blochmann,  Persian  Prosody,  p.  31.) 
Though  written  in  the  classical  period,  the  poem  contains  many  pre-classic 
forms,  e.g.  ^  before  the  nominative,  1.  755;  the  kasra  of  the  izafat 
lengthened  to  l_f)  1.  832  ;  the  preposition^)  with  the  izafat,  1.  38;  \j  as  the 
sign  of  the  genitive,  1.  554 ;  pronominal  affixes  separated  from  their  verb, 
1.  443  ;  the  preposition  .J  placed  after  its  noun,  to  which  &>  is  prefixed, 
1.  109.  Contractions  are  frequent,  e.g.  bagzasht,  1.  28;  bastad,  1.  61; 
nanhdda,  1.  161 ;  tuibwud,  1.  142  ;  tust  for  tu  ast,  1.  269  ;  batar  for  badtar, 
\.  323  ;  bud  for  bud,  1.  914 ;  ami  for  arini,  1.  193  ;  alastub  rabbakum,  1.  419  ; 
ta'allalld,  1.  13.  The  tashdid  of  words  like  .¥=-,  Jp,  and  ,J  is  dropped 
if  the  metre  requires  it.  (Blochmann,  p.  iv.)  The  tashdid  is  added 
ob  metrum  in  jaJ,  1.  821;  and,  if  the  readings  in  the  text  are  correct, 
to  .^jl  in  1.  706,  and  to^^aj  and  *A»U  in  lines  144  and  403-  But  this  is 
doubtful.  (See  Blochmann,  p.  9.)  In  1.  385  the  izafat  after  mute  x  is  not 
sounded.  (Lumsden,  Persian  Grammar,  ii.  249-)  In  1.  84  and  1.  320  x  is 
treated  as  a  mute  x.  In  1.  368  and  1.  552  s>  is  treated  as  an  alif  i  waft. 
(Blochmann,  p.  13.)  Blochmann  says  ^  doubled  by  an  affixed  izafat  or 
yae  tanJcir  should  not  be  marked  with  hamza,  but  the  MSS.  of  this  poem 
mark  it  with  hamza  or  with  tashdid,  as  in  1.  703  ;  or  leave  it  unmarked, 
as  in  11.  642  and  336.  (See  Lumsden,  ii.  247).  Note  that  hamza  is  often 
used  when  ,_$  is  a  single  vowel,  e.  g.  11.  3  and  435.  This,  according  to 
Blochmann,  is  its  only  correct  use  with  ,_$.  Line  347  will  not  scan  as  it 
stands,  but  the  MSS.  offer  no  alternative  reading  for  ci--**^cUJ'.  Probably 
dj  here  is  not  sounded,  as  in  ui^lif,  1.  305,  and  tX^iaa,  1.  544.  The 
MSS.  generally  insert  the  hamza,  indicating  an  izafat  or  yae  tankir,  after 
mute  *,  but  sometimes  omit  it,  as  in  1.  456. 


EEHA.TA. 


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